Cronbach��s �� values for the seven sellckchem produced factors ranged from .42 to .51 and test-retest reliability values from .41 to .51. Confirmatory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis, using a different sample (n3=288) of athletes, was conducted to confirm the previously obtained factorial structure. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with a computer program Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; Arbuckle, 1997). The primary index used for model fit was the ��root mean square error of approximation�� (RMSEA), which is a measure of the mean discrepancy between the observed covariances and those implied by the model per degree of freedom. Values less than 0.05 are indicators of a good fit. Certain researchers consider 0.08 as an acceptable cut-off value, but certainly an RMSEA value above 0.
1 indicates a poor model fit. Two additional incremental fit indices are reported: TLI and CFI. The TLI, (Tucker-Lewis coefficient), belongs to the family of indices that compare the discrepancy of the specified model in comparison to the baseline model (Bentler & Bonett, 1980; Bollen, 1989). The typical range for TLI lies between 0 and 1, but it is not limited to that range. TLI values close to 1 indicate a very good fit. A value of TLI=0.9 is considered a cut-off value, above which there is an indication of a good model fit. The same criteria apply for the CFI (comparative fit index). The confirmatory factor analysis for the overall model gave an RMSEA value of 0.049, with TLI=0.892 and CFI=0.911, providing acceptance for the structure of the inventory.
Following the analysis for the total model, separate confirmatory factor analyses were performed for each factor (Table 3). Table 3 shows the fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis for the model fit of each individual factor. The RMSEA values for the factors activation, automaticity, and self talk are above the value of 0.1. Table 3 Confirmatory factor analysis of the subscales of the TOPS-CS (group 3=288 athletes) Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Competition Scale of the TOPS in Greek athletic population. The TOPS-CS is designed to assess the psychological strategies used by athletes in competition, thus giving valuable information to coaches and practitioners about the psychological parameters underlying athletic performance.
In the present study, results differentiate a lot depending on the athletes�� age group. In the first study, Entinostat for athletes aged 16�C20 years, exploratory factor analysis produced an acceptable eight factor structure, a result also found in other studies (Jackson et al., 2000; Taylor et al., 2000). The eight factors hypothesized to underlie the items were: self-talk, emotional control, automaticity, goal-setting, imagery, relaxation, activation and negative thinking. In the exploratory factor analysis, all factors were obtained.