Modernisation of fishing technology and improvement of cyclone forecasting and radio signalling can reduce risk and improve responses to cyclones. Access to less expensive credit through institutional reform could help transform fishing technology, prevent maladaptation and diversify livelihood strategies as well as reduce the cost of fishing. Institutional reform can also improve enforcement of maritime laws and access to fish market to help reduce the overall costs of fishing business. Enforcement of fishing regulations and provision of Obeticholic Acid in vitro insurance would
increase safety of fishermen. Finally, building fishermen’s human capital and creation of alternative livelihood activities would help diversify their livelihoods. These
findings form the basis for further detailed research into the determinants and implications of such limits and barriers. More studies are needed in order to move towards an improved characterisation of adaptation and to identify JQ1 cell line the most suitable means to overcome the limits and barriers. This paper is part of a PhD study funded by the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission. This work was also supported by the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP), and Sustainability Research Institute of the University of Leeds; Carls Wallace Trust, UK and Annesha Group, Bangladesh. Academic insights gained from engagement with the World Universities Network ‘Limits to Adaptation’ group were influential in the framing of this paper. “
“In April this year (2013) a conference exploring ‘Fuelling the future’ was organised by Shipping Emissions Abatement and Trading (SEAaT) at Norton Rose LLP, London . It focussed on the regulation surrounding Emission Control Areas (ECAs), in particular the enforceable
limits in North West European Waters. Currently, marine fuel oil has high sulphur content and when released via the ships exhaust as sulphur oxides (SOx) it increases the acidification potential of the surrounding atmosphere. The rationale Dipeptidyl peptidase for the ECAs is therefore to limit marine fuel sulphur content in such areas and in turn, minimise the release of SOx. The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Marpol Annex VI stipulates that from 1st January 2015, the maximum allowable sulphur content of marine fuel combusted in an ECA will be 0.1% . Outside of the ECAs Marpol Annex VI limits global marine fuel sulphur content to 0.5% by 2020. There is also a similar requirement to minimise the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The reduction in fuel sulphur content within an ECA is requiring a step-change in thinking for those affected. The shipping industry will no longer be able to burn high sulphur content heavy fuel oil and will either require an alternative fuel, scrubbing or, as a last resort, the potential shut down of routes in affected areas.