Additional data included demographics, duration of malarious travel, previous use of prophylactic agents, underlying medical conditions, concurrent medications, and reasons for non-adherence. Results. Complete data were available for 104/124 (84%) participants: 49 (47%) men, 55 (53%) women. Average duration of malarious travel was 12 days, and 19 (18%) travelers reported previous travel to a malarious
region. Ninety-two (89%) subjects were completely adherent with their prophylactic atovaquone-proguanil course. Adverse effects were seen in 6 (5%) travelers. Conclusions. Adherence with atovaquone-proguanil malaria prophylaxis is high among travelers from a non-endemic region. Smad inhibitor Adverse effects are minimal. Non-adherence was primarily attributable to travelers’ perception of need. Malaria continues to be a serious, world-wide infection causing approximately 350 million
infections and 1 million deaths annually.1 Although not endemic to the United States, it remains a risk for travelers to malarious areas. More than half of the cases reported in the United States are due to Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria.2 The risk for acquisition Vemurafenib chemical structure of malaria varies by region with most cases acquired in Sub-Saharan Africa.1 A large proportion of cases reported from travelers to regions with endemic malaria are due to inappropriate chemoprophylaxis or non-adherence to the prescribed regimen.3- 5 Assessment of a traveler’s risk and exposure requires a thorough knowledge of the malaria endemic regions to be visited and modes of transmission
as misconceptions are not uncommon. For example, a study among backpackers to southeast Asia showed that 35% of travelers believed eating contaminated food could cause malaria.6 In addition to the use of N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET)-containing insect repellants, mosquito nets, and proper clothing, IDSA guidelines recommend the use of malaria chemoprophylaxis.7 Rolziracetam In areas with chloroquine resistance, regimens of atovaquone-proguanil, mefloquine, or doxycycline are recommended.7,8 Prophylaxis with fixed-dose atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone; Glaxo-SmithKline) has not only been shown to be highly effective,9 but is also very well tolerated with minimal adverse effects.10 There are few studies which examine traveler adherence to atovaquone-proguanil prophylaxis. One such study by Nicosia and colleagues found adherence to be as high as 99.6%.11 This study, however, was performed on an isolated population of employees at an Italian-based oil company and may not reflect a more heterogeneous population of travelers. The Long Island Jewish Medical Center’s Travel and Immunization Center services approximately 2,500 travelers per year, who travel abroad for business or pleasure, and come prior to departure for medical consultation and immunizations.