e. adapting existing building codes to ensure that long-term
infrastructure will withstand future climate risks. Coastal defences on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea have been built since the 19th century. Coastal protection Target Selective Inhibitor Library screening structures, consisting mostly of groynes and revetments, exist along ca 26% of the Polish coastline (Pruszak & Zawadzka 2008). Three adaptation options are being considered in the context of climate change adaptation in the Polish coastal zone: retreat, limited protection and full protection. The total cost of all protection measures in the whole coastal zone of Poland, at 1995 prices, is 6 billion USD (Zeidler 1997), i.e. 8 times less than the total cost of land loss due to sea-level rise, including storm surge effects.
The protection measures include strengthening existing defences and constructing new defences. In the Vistula Delta, full protection is required, consisting of storm and flood prevention facilities. It is estimated that 107 and 280 km respectively of new dykes will have to be constructed for sea level rises by the year 2100 of 30 cm and 1 m; the respective lengths of dykes requiring improvement are 243 and 324 km for the same scenarios (Pruszak 2000). However, since the uncertainty in climate change projections is high, monitoring the situation and updating plans are necessary on an almost continuous basis. In response to a number Natural Product Library nmr of recent destructive inundations in Europe since the 1990s, such as the summer floods in 1997 and 2002, the EU Floods Directive (CEC 2007) was adopted. The Directive obliges EU Member States to undertake, for each river basin district or
the portion of an international river basin district or coastal area lying within 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase their territory: – a preliminary flood risk assessment (a map of the river basin; description of past floods; description of flooding processes and their sensitivity to change; description of development plans; assessment of the likelihood of future floods based on hydrological data, types of floods and the projected impact of climate change and land-use trends; forecast of estimated consequences of future floods); After having entered the European Union on 1 May 2004, Poland contributed to the collaborative, pan-European work on the preparation of the EU Floods Directive (No. 2007/60/WE). It was published in the Polish legislative periodical Dziennik Ustaw (Dz.U. UE L 288/27). The implementation of the Directive in the Polish legal system was regulated by the updated ‘Water Law’ of 5 January 2011 (Dz.U. Nr 32, poz. 159) that came into force on 18 March 2011. Since the Floods Directive is closely related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, road maps for the implementation of both these directives have to be fully synchronised. It is desirable, therefore, that social consultation processes should be closely coordinated.