Nevertheless, concerns have been raised regarding the discontinuation of ARVs postpartum in light of the results from CD4-guided interruption studies (SMART  and TRIVICAN  in particular) although the interruption of ARV given for PMTCT after delivery is not completely analogous. In both these studies, which were halted prematurely because of the significantly worse outcome in the CD4-guided interruption arm, lower CD4 cell count thresholds for resumption of therapy were used than would be currently based on clinical treatment guidelines. Moreover, these CD4-based treatment RCTs (SMART and TRIVICAN) and the major cohort studies (NA-ACCORD ,
Pictilisib cost ART-CC ) either excluded or did not collect data on pregnant women. Hence, these recommendations extrapolate data used to inform the internationally accepted treatment guidelines for all adults as well as incorporating the evidence available
from the limited data there is for postpartum drug management. In addition, observations on the collated evidence of the deleterious PLX4032 nmr effect of direct virus infection, and indirect inflammatory response and its correlation to CD4 cell count, allow tentative conclusions to be made on the potential for this to be prevented by cART. To answer the question as to whether one should continue or stop cART in patients receiving it to prevent MTCT with a CD4 cell count > 400 cells/μL, a randomized
study (the HAART Standard Version of the Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere [PROMISE] Study NCT00955968), is now recruiting: results of this interventional trial are not expected for several years. 5.6.3. ART should be continued in all women who commenced cART for PMTCT with a CD4 cell count of between 350 and 500 cells/μL during pregnancy who are co-infected with HBV or HCV in accordance with the BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1 positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2012 (http://www.bhiva.org/Guidelines.aspx). Grading: 1B There is evidence that continuing ART in patients co-infected with HBV or HCV reduces co-morbidity progression. For HBV, there is Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase the additional requirement of viral suppression from antiviral drugs (emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir) and the risk of a flare of hepatitis if discontinued. (See Section 6.2: Hepatitis C virus) 5.6.4 ART can be continued in all women who commenced cART for PMTCT with a CD4 cell count of between 350 and 500 cells/μL during pregnancy. Grading: 2C On the basis of the above cohort data the Department of Health and Social Services (2011)  and International AIDS Society (2010) guidelines  for treating adults have now altered their recommendation and advise treating all adults with a CD4 cell count < 500 cells/μL.