Thus, from the present data, it is not clear whether
the cleavage occurs from the N-terminus or the C-terminus. Thus, the present study, together with the reports of Ramakrishnan et al. (2000), indicates selleck kinase inhibitor a possible role of PE_PGRS30 in latency of the Mtb. Insights into the mechanism of growth retardation brought about by PE_PGRS30 and studies using animal models will determine the precise role of this protein in the biology of Mtb, which will aid in the development of more potent vaccines and drugs against the pathogen. The Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, is acknowledged for financial support. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, is acknowledged for research fellowship to V.K.G. The authors sincerely appreciate the technical help provided by Mr S.C.P. Sharma and Dr Gajender Saini at the Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF), JNU, New Delhi, for electron microscopy. “
“There has been tremendous growth in biofilm research in the past three decades. This growth has been reflected in development of a wide variety of experimental, clinical, and theoretical techniques fostered by our increased knowledge. Keeping the theoretical developments abreast of the experimental advancements and ensuring that the theoretical results are
disseminated to the experimental and clinical community is a major challenge. This manuscript provides an overview of recent developments in each scientific CHIR-99021 in vitro domain. More importantly, this manuscript aims to identify
either areas where the theory lags behind the experimental understanding (and vice versa). The major themes of the manuscript derive from discussions and presentations at a recent interdisciplinary workshop that brought together a variety of scientists whose underlying studies focus on biofilm processes. Defining a microbial biofilm can be challenging. It is usually described as a community of microorganisms bound to a surface and to each other, encased in a self-produced exopolymeric substance. Such a microbial lifestyle is common in the environment, water distribution systems, and many human infections, particularly those involving indwelling devices. The establishment of a biofilm has several advantages to the microorganisms. It provides protection from environmental insults, enhances cell-to-cell communication (including quorum sensing) which can foster genetic exchange, and aids persistence by close interaction with a substratum, even in the presence of significant shear forces. Thus, microbial biofilms are complex, significant, and unique communities of great consequence to many facets of modern life.