In recent years, the number of travelers to developing countries has increased dramatically,1 including those with preexisting medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus. Due to improved awareness and support for travelers with diabetes, their number probably will continue to
rise.2,3 Traveling to developing countries may complicate an underlying medical condition and may require special considerations and advice. For example, it has been suggested that travelers with diabetes have a higher risk of metabolic dysregulation and symptomatic infectious diseases.4–6 Whereas some countries advise all travelers to carry antibiotics, Dutch travel guidelines recommend that only travelers with certain underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes, and travelers to areas with poor health facilities should be prescribed stand-by antibiotics for treatment of diarrhea.7 British guidelines likewise advise to selleck chemical consider prescribing a course of antibiotics for travelers with certain preexisting medical conditions.8 However, data on the association of diabetes mellitus with tropical infections, and on the benefits of preventive and therapeutic measures are lacking. Even evidence for a causal MAPK inhibitor relation between diabetes and domestic infections is limited and inconsistent.9 The exact number of travelers with diabetes who visit developing countries
is not known. In a study published in 1991, 0.4% of 2,445 travelers to the developing world who visited a travel clinic had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.10 Since then, the prevalence of diabetes, both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent, has increased. Annually, AZD9291 concentration about 90 million persons travel to developing countries from North America and Europe,11 where diabetes prevalence is about 2.8%.12 Assuming that persons with diabetes travel as frequently as persons without diabetes, an estimated 2.5 million persons with diabetes travel annually from North America and Europe to developing countries. To improve travel advice for this substantial group, we conducted
a prospective study with matched controls to see if travelers with diabetes are more susceptible to symptomatic infectious diseases than travelers without diabetes. We also studied the usage of antibiotics for stand-by treatment of diarrhea among travelers with diabetes. A prospective study with matched controls was performed among travelers who attended the travel clinics of the Public Health Service Amsterdam or the University Medical Centre Leiden between October 2003 and February 2008. All medication-dependent persons 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus were eligible if planning to travel to one or more developing countries together with a non-immune-suppressed travel companion without diabetes, who was within 10 years of their age. Thus, the control group was comparable for travel destination, travel duration, and exposure.