“The purpose of the study was FK228 mw to evaluate whether a lower concentration of FSH or 2-h incubation with FSH would improve the outcome of in-vitro maturation of oocytes. The immature oocytes were obtained from FVB mice, and were allocated to four groups and incubated in the maturation media for 24 h. The maturation media were supplemented with 10 mIU/ml FSH for 24 h (group 1), 10 mIU/ml FSH for 2 h (group 2), 75 mIU/ml FSH for 24 h (group 3) or 75 mIU/ml FSH for 2 h (group 4). In each group, half of the in-vitro-matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured to blastocysts and the remaining matured
oocytes were analysed for growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-15 mRNA to assess the oocyte quality. The maturation rates and oocyte BMP-15 mRNA concentrations were similar among the four groups. The GDF-9 mRNA concentrations were similar in group 2 and group 4. The fertilization and blastocyst rates
were higher in groups 2 and 4 than in groups 1 and 3. It is concluded that 2-h incubation with FSH is better than 24-h incubation Selleck AZD1480 in terms of the fertilization rate and blastocyst development. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To correlate the clinical course of mycoplasma mastitis with its immune response, right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculating with 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma). Before sacrificing the animals at 5, 15 or 45 days post-inoculation (dpi), blood Ma antibody titres and milk mycoplasma colony and somatic cell counts were monitored. Ma colonised the mammary gland and milk counts increased find more to over 10(12) cfu/ml within 5 dpi. During this period, an innate immune response involving
neutrophils and macrophages was observed, and Ma antigen appeared in the degenerated acinar epithelium. From 7 dpi, a specific antibody response coincided with reduced viable mycoplasmas in milk. The humoral immune response was limited; by 37 dpi, all animals scored negative for anti-Ma antibodies, and around 10(8) cfu/ml were shed. Results indicate an early immune response to Ma inoculation unable to control mycoplasmal invasion. An ensuing humoral response, despite reducing the mycoplasma burden, leads to chronic, persistent infection. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Oocyte cryopreservation still bears the experimental label. Remarkable innovation in this field has led to immense improvement in clinical outcomes and has even resulted in outcomes comparable to those achieved following fresh embryo transfers. Such success has prompted this centre to investigate outcomes of cryopreservation options (oocyte versus pronuclear zygote versus supernumerary day-5 blastocyst after fresh embryo transfer).