05; DH1, 148%, P < 0 01; and DH2, 130%, P < 0 05) An increase in

05; DH1, 148%, P < 0.01; and DH2, 130%, P < 0.05). An increase in ventral prostate (VP) weight was evident (DH1, 165%, P < 0.01; DH2, 162%, P < 0.01). Lateral prostate (LP) weight increased (SH3, 167%, P < 0.0); DH2, 157%, P < 0.01; and DH3, 155%, P < 0.01). There was no change in dorsal prostate (DP) weight. WT VP sections http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Enzastaurin.html were mostly composed of a single layer of epithelial cells lining a lumen (Figure 5A). Diffuse luminal epithelial cell hyperplasia, characterized by increased stratification in the form of tufting and papillary in-folding and a reduction in luminal size, was evident in all DH lines (Figure 5B). No atypical nuclei were observed in SH TG mice; however, there was evidence of atypical nuclei in DH VP sections; including nuclear enlargement (one to three per high-power field), increased prominence of nucleoli (one to three per high-power field), and cribriform structures (Figure 5C).

Epithelial cell mitosis was more frequently observed in DH VP sections (one to four cells per high-power field, Figure 5D), whereas mitotic cells were not observed in WT VP sections. Assessment of the percentage of proliferating (PCNA-positive) and apoptotic (activated caspase-3-positive) epithelial cells in 14- to 16-week-old WT and DH2 TG mice showed a significant increase in PCNA-positive cells (Figure 5E) and no difference in epithelial cell apoptosis (Figure 5F). Figure 5 Prostate histology and proliferation. The incidence of proliferation (PCNA-positive) and apoptosis (caspase-3-positive) was estimated based on a method that allowed an unbiased semiquantitation of the percentage of positive cells in TG and WT samples.

… Reduced Nuclear Localization of Total Smad-2 in Activin-��C-Overexpressing Mice To determine whether phenotypes observed with activin-��C overexpression in the testis, liver, and prostate were related to reduced Smad-2 signaling in vivo we quantified nuclear localization of total Smad-2 in TG and WT littermate controls. Significant reductions in nuclear localization of total Smad-2 were evident in the testis, liver, and prostate of activin-��C-overexpressing mice (P < 0.01; Figure 6, A�CC). Figure 6, D to F, shows representative examples of Smad-2 staining in WT and TG testis, liver, and ventral prostate, respectively. Figure 6 Nuclear localization of total Smad-2 in TG tissues. Total Smad-2 was detected using the DAKO Autostainer universal staining system.

Tissue sections were masked and the incidence of nuclear localization of total Smad-2 in testis, liver, and prostate sections … Activin Subunit Expression To quantify TG gene expression and to determine Dacomitinib whether phenotypic changes were related to changes in endogenous mouse activin-��C or activin-��A gene expression, real-time RT-PCR was performed. Transgene (human activin-��C) mRNA expression was evident in the testis, liver, and prostate of all TG mice.

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