Catholic criticism has raised seven points: (i) God wants human l

Catholic criticism has raised seven points: (i) God wants human life to begin

through the ‘conjugal act’ and not artificially; (ii) artificial interventions at the ML323 ic50 beginning of human life are dangerous and ethically unacceptable; (iii) limits can be imposed even upon an individual’s freedom to achieve a legitimate goal, such as having a child within marriage; (iv) the massive loss of preimplantation embryos characterizing IVF must be considered as a tragic loss of ‘nascent’ human persons; (v) Edwards bears a moral responsibility for all subsequent developments in assisted reproduction technology and for all ‘abuses’ made possible by IVF; (vi) there can be deleterious consequences for offspring of assisted reproduction technology; and (vii) Edwards’ discovery did not eliminate the causes of infertility. This article elaborates from the Roman Catholic perspective on each of these points, some of which are found to be more substantial than others. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare

Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Although thiazolidinediones precipitate fluid retention in clinical trials. current guidelines advocate their use for patients with diabetes who are felt to be at low risk for heart failure (HF).

Methods and Results: Air inception cohort study was conducted using Saskatchewan Health databases spanning the years 1991 to 1999 (before use of thiazolidinediones)

to compare incidence rates of new HF in patients with recent-onset B-Raf inhibition diabetes find more vs. the general population. Of 12,272 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes (mean age 63 years), 718 (6%) developed HF over 5.2 years; median time until development of HF was 2.8 years. The adjusted rate of incident HF for the diabetes cohort was 794 cases per 100,000 person years compared with 275 per 100,000 person-years in the general population. Patients with recent-onset diabetes were more likely to develop HF than the general Population (adjusted rate ratio 2.9; 95% Cl 2.6 to 3.2) and the relative risk was most pronounced in those younger than 60 years (adjusted rate ratio 12.8. 95% Cl 8.2 to 20.0).

Conclusions: The incidence of HF is relatively high within 5 years of diabetes onset, calling into question the ease with which individuals with diabetes “”at low risk of HF”" can be identified. (J Cardiac Fail 2009,15:152-157)”
“Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known as an important risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) in spine surgery. It is still unclear however which DM-related parameters have stronger influence on SSI. The purpose of this study is to determine predisposing factors for SSI following spinal instrumentation surgery for patients with DM.

110 DM patients (66 males and 44 females) who underwent spinal instrumentation surgery in one institute were enrolled in this study.

It was shown that Extralife, Hypoxen, taurine, and synthetic anti

It was shown that Extralife, Hypoxen, taurine, and synthetic antioxidant ionol can be arranged in the following row, according to the fluorescence inhibition

activity: Extralife GW3965 purchase > Hypoxen > ionol > taurine; their effect was shown to be concentration-dependent. The calculated K (i) value of fluorescence indicators demonstrate fast and slow phases of inhibition of the AR oxidation by Extralife and Hypoxen. The fast phase occurs in the presence of microdoses (0.05-3 mu g/mL) of adaptogens and is related to the competition for H2O2, which is in agreement with our previous data on the mitoK(ATP) activation by doses of adaptogens related to the H2O2 consumption. The slow phase is characteristic of high adaptogen and ionol concentrations and is related to the competition for phenoxyl radicals of resorufin formed during AR oxidation. The obtained results allow one to suggest the application of a highly sensitive model peroxidase system with AR for the preliminary testing of compounds activating mitoK(ATP) channels.”

The prevalence of physician extenders (PEs) has increased significantly in dermatologic surgery over the last decade.



analysis was performed of the staff in dermatologic surgery practices, roles of PEs, and level of supervision.


Mohs fellowship-trained (MMSFT) dermatologic surgeons were more likely to employ registered Z-IETD-FMK nurses (n=85, 73.9%) than non-fellowship-trained EPZ-6438 inhibitor (NMMSFT) surgeons (n=65, 50.0%, p <.05) (dermatologists who reported performing Mohs without having completed a Mohs College fellowship). NMMSFT surgeons (n=46, 35.4%) were 33% more likely to employ physician assistants than MMSFT surgeons (n=30, 26.1%,

p=.05). Both surgeon types reported that their physician assistants and nurse practitioners spent the majority of their time treating medical dermatology patients, but NMMSFT surgeons were twice as likely as MMSFT surgeons to have their PEs involved in performing or assisting with cosmetic procedures. MMSFT surgeons (38.5%) were twice as likely to have direct supervision of their PEs as NMMSFT surgeons (16.1%, p=.01).


PEs are highly prevalent in dermatologic surgery practices and are playing direct roles in the delivery of dermatologic care. Promoting patient safety through appropriate extender supervision and reporting of patient outcomes are highly needed as this sector of the dermatologic surgery workforce continues to expand.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“The primary plant cell wall is laid down over a brief period of time during cytokinesis. Initially, a membrane network forms at the equator of a dividing cell.

“The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and saf

“The aim of this study is to compare effectiveness and safety of Infliximab (INF), Etanercept (ETN), and Adalimumab (ADA) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with inadequate response to a previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). One hundred consecutive PsA patients with inadequate response to a previous DMARD entered this study. Clinical and laboratory assessment at baseline (T0) and 12 (T12)

months were performed and included physical examination, vital signs, global Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI; extension of psoriasis), tender joints count (TJC), swollen joint count, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ; questionnaire for measuring disability), and monitoring of adverse events (AEs). After enrolment, all patients were randomly given INF 5 mg/Kg every 6-8 weeks, ETN 50 mg weekly,

Epigenetic inhibitor supplier or ADA 40 mg every other week. Baseline therapy with DMARD remained Cell Cycle inhibitor unchanged. Effectiveness was defined as percentage of ACR20 responders and as clinical remission and/or minimal disease activity at 12 months treatment. INF, ETN, and ADA all effectively controlled signs and symptoms of PsA. All variables tested showed at T12 for each treatment a significant variation from the baseline value. In particular, patients on INF and ADA showed the greatest improvement in terms of PASI, while patients on ETN showed the greatest improvement on TJC and HAQ. ACR response rates were 72% of patients on ETN, 70% of those on ADA, and 75% of those patients on INF. Occurrence of AEs was reported in 15% of the cases. Only two AEs in patients on INF were considered drug related, pneumonitis and thrombocytopenia, respectively. All tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers significantly controlled signs and symptoms of PsA. An increased knowledge of the different profiles of these agents may help in optimizing their use.”
“In this work, organically modified layered double hydroxides (OLDHs) were prepared this website and used to make exfoliated polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites by solvent blending method. First, Mg-Al, Co-Al, Ni-Al, Cu-Al, Cu-Fe, and

Cu-Cr LDHs were synthesized by coprecipitation method at constant pH using their nitrate salts. The organically modified LDHs (OLDHs) were synthesized using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Then, PS nanocomposites containing 5 wt % of the above modified LDHs were developed by solvent blending method. The structural and thermal properties of LDHs and their corresponding nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The formation of exfoliated PS/OLDH nanocomposites is demonstrated by XRD and TEM analysis. TEM analysis also confirms the nanoscale dispersion of the LDH layers in the PS matrix. The presence of sulfate groups in the modified LDHs is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy.

The final overall conversion and the individual conversions of ST

The final overall conversion and the individual conversions of ST and SMA all decrease with increasing SMA concentration.

Furthermore, at a particular reaction time, the individual conversion of SMA is always greater than that of ST. Monomer droplet nucleation was retarded severely for the monomer pair ST/LMA, presumably due to the very strong Ostwald ripening effect. As a result, relatively slow rates of copolymerization of ST and LMA were attained compared with the ST/SMA counterpart. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 620-628, 2011″
“Study Design. Several senescence biomarkers were observed Z VAD FMK to investigate cell senescence in degenerative

intervertebral lumbar discs of foreleg-amputated rats.

Objective. To determine if cell senescence is accelerated in degenerative intervertebral lumbar disc cells in an upright-rat model.

Summary of Background Data. Cellular senescence was accelerated in human and sand rat degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. Repeated use of upright posture by rats contributed to degenerative disc changes. No convincing evidence of cell senescence was observed in the lumbar disc of the foreleg amputated rat.

Methods. The forelimbs of 20 rats were amputated at 1 month of age such that they maintained an upright stance; rats were housed in custom-made cages. Nonamputated rats, also 1 month of age, were CFTRinh-172 solubility dmso kept in regular cages and served as a control group. The lumbar IVDs were harvested from rats in 2 groups, at 5 or 9 months IPI-145 datasheet following amputation. Senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase-positive staining was used to detect cell senescence. p16INK4a and p27KIP were assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Total RNA isolated from these samples was used to measure the gene expression of p16INK4a, RB, cyclin D1, CDK4, PTEN, p27KIP, p19ARF, p21, TERT, and RAGE by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results. The highest levels of SA-beta-GAL activity were detected in

9-month amputated rats. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there were highest rates of p16INK4a and p27KIP protein expression in the cartilage endplate and anulus fibrosus of 9-month amputated rats. The mRNA levels of p16INK4a, RB, PTEN, p27KIP, p19ARF, and RAGE were upregulated. The increased cyclin D1 mRNA level was statistically significant only at the ninth month following amputation; CDK4 and TERT mRNA levels were downregulated to a similar extent at both points compared with nonamputated controls. mRNA expression of p21 was significantly downregulated.

Conclusion. Accelerated cell senescence was associated with forelimb amputation that causes abnormal loading in rat lumbar IVDs.

This mutation may have a strong relation to hereditary sensory an

This mutation may have a strong relation to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV Taiwanese patients. This is the youngest reported patient in Taiwan and first reported with congenital insensitivity to pain with mutation of NTRK1 gene inherited from the parents. Early diagnosis may provide appropriate medical care and education for these children and their families for better prognosis.”

bowel diseases check details (IBDs) encompass ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and indeterminate colitis, all of which are characterized by remission and exacerbation of gastrointestinal symptoms, and a variety of extraintestinal manifestations including those affecting the oral cavity. Although not particularly a cause for mortality, inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with significant morbidity and impact on the quality Pfizer Licensed Compound Library cost of life. This article reviews clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic modalities for the 2 main types of inflammatory bowel disease and discusses manifestations of these conditions in the oral cavity. The role of the oral health care provider in timely recognition and referral for medical work-up as well as

management of oral complaints is also emphasized. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:e1-e10)”
“This paper is devoted to the development and numerical modeling of a field emission cathode for low power Hall PF-04929113 mw thrusters (100-300 W). Generally, Hall thrusters use hollow cathodes, which require a relatively large mass flow rate of xenon-gas to operate. For lower emission currents the cathode gas consumption is still substantial, which contributes to the drop in efficiency when operating a Hall thruster in a low power regime. Conventional field emission cathodes, which are considered as an alternative, do not provide the required low power consumption with an acceptable lifetime. In order to increase

the efficiency of the field emission cathode while retaining an acceptable lifetime, an acceleration-deceleration electron optics is proposed. This system is used for the extraction of electrons from carbon nanotubes and the formation of the electron beam. Numerical modeling of the processes in the proposed cathode was carried out using a particle-in-cell approach. It has been shown that (1) it is possible to provide adequate transmission of the electron beam at the required deceleration voltage; (2) injecting xenon-gas at the outlet of the cathode for the creation of a “”plasma-bridge”" between the cathode and ion beam does not lead to significant population of ions near the emitter surface. A cathode with electron current of I A was modeled using a particle-in-cell simulation. The cathode requires only similar to 15 W of power and 0.11 mg/s of xenon mass flow rate. For the given current, these parameters are quite reasonable. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Results: After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689


Results: After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689

teachers were included in the analyses. The number of nonsmokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9), MH (1.2; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4) and RE (1.6; 95% CI, 0.5-2.7) in passive smokers significantly exceeded those in non-smokers.

Conclusions: A smoke-free school policy would improve the HRQOL of healthy non-smoking teachers who are exposed to ETS.”
“Chemical modification of corn starches with succinic anhydride or acetic anhydride was carried out using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCI), is a reaction medium. The reaction progress was followed in terms

of the degree of substitution (DS) for the starch derivatives. The results showed that the homogeneous esterification of starch at 5 : 1 molar ratio of anhydride/anhydroglucose units at 100 degrees C led to formation of acetates with DS ranging selleck chemicals from 0.37 to 2.35 and succinates with DS ranging from 0.03 to 0.93. Moreover, the reaction media applied could be easily recycled and reused. Further, the formation of starch esters was confirmed by the presence of the carbonyl signal in the FTIR and NMR spectra. It was shown that the starch

granules were mostly converted from their crystalline structure into amorphous state in the ionic liquid system under the given S3I-201 reaction conditions. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 218-224, 2010″
“Comparison between related species is a successful approach to uncover conserved and divergent principles of development. Here, we studied the pattern of epithalamic asymmetry in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes), two related teleost species with 115-200 Myr of independent evolution. We found that these species share a strikingly conserved overall pattern of asymmetry in the parapineal-habenular-interpeduncular system. Nodal signalling exhibits comparable spatial and temporal asymmetric expressions in the presumptive epithalamus preceding the development of morphological asymmetries.

Two articles evaluate medium and long-term results on corporal gr

Two articles evaluate medium and long-term results on corporal grafting. There are some newly described, minimally invasive approaches to albuginea, and some are describing new techniques for plaque

attenuation. One study is dealing with selective calcified plaque excision and contralateral plication, and another describes different modalities of accurate tunical incision(s) and grafting for complete re-establishment of predisease penile size.


In the last 18 months, there are few works that could have impact for clinical practice, while one proved poor long-term results of dermal flap grafting.”
“Objectives: In recent years ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) has become an increasingly Tariquidar molecular weight popular treatment for varicose veins. Although many published series detail the results of Selleckchem AZD2171 UGFS, little is known about the factors which are associated with outcomes and complications. The aim of this study was to identify these factors.

Design: A review of a prospectively collected database of UGFS which commenced in July 2007.

Methods: A successful outcome was defined as complete occlusion of the target vein on duplex scanning at follow-up. Eight factors were assessed

to determine whether they were associated with outcomes and complications. These factors were age, gender, compliance with post-procedure compression hosiery, previous varicose vein surgery, single or multiple sites of injection, concentration of sclerosant, volume of sclerosant and pre-procedure severity score.

Results: Between July 2007 and July 2009, a total of 126 patients (60 men, 66 women) attended follow-up visits and had a

post-procedure duplex scan. Targets for UGFS included the great saphenous vein (n = 75), small saphenous vein (n = 13) and anterior accessory great saphenous vein (n = 8). The remainder of procedures involved other veins or more than a single target vein. The median timing of follow-up was 3 months (range 1.5-14 months) with duplex scans revealing complete occlusion of the target vein in 79% of patients. The only factor associated with a successful outcome was compliance with post-procedure compression hosiery (p < 0.05). The most frequently encountered complications following UGFS were skin staining (28%), superficial thrombophlebitis check details (18%) and pain (14%). The only factor associated with post-UGFS complications was female gender (p < 0.05). When complications were analysed in isolation female gender was also significantly associated with skin staining (p < 0.05), but no other complication.

Conclusions: These data suggest that compliance with post-procedure compression hosiery and gender are important factors associated with a successful outcome and reported complications following UGFS, respectively. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This is a prospective study which was conducted in a tertiary uni

This is a prospective study which was conducted in a tertiary unit in the North West of England and comprised 36 consecutive women with recurrent anterior vaginal wall prolapse.

Women were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 months and 2 years. Women completed the Prolapse Quality of Life Questionnaire (P-QOL), Prolapse and Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire-Short Form (PISQ-12), and postoperatively, the Global Impression of GSK3326595 cost Improvement Questionnaire. Women were examined using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Quantification System (POP-Q). Anatomical success was defined as stage a parts per thousand currency sign1 prolapse in the anterior compartment. Main outcome measures Postoperative POP-Q stage, quality of life domains and mesh exposure rate.

Preoperatively all but two women had stage 2 or greater anterior vaginal wall prolapse. At a mean follow-up of 24.6 months, 19 women (53%) had stage a parts click here per thousand currency sign1 anterior wall prolapse. Fifteen women had stage 2 anterior wall prolapse and two women had stage 3 prolapse. Twenty-nine women felt improvement in their prolapse symptoms. 16 women were sexually active preoperatively, of whom seven reported worsening dyspareunia. There was poor correlation between

anatomical and functional outcomes. Seven women had mesh exposure. Five needed revision in theatre.

Anterior Prolift (TM) for recurrent anterior vaginal wall prolapse has 53% anatomical success rate BLZ945 in vitro in the medium

term, with mesh exposure rate of 19%. Majority of patients felt overall improvement in their symptoms, but this did not correlate with the anatomical outcome.”
“Visual complaints in patients with dementia are varied and attributable to both visual sensory (afferent) and ocular motor (efferent) dysfunction. This review focuses exclusively on the efferent visual dysfunction associated with dementia and aging. It provides a brief overview of the most common ocular motility disturbances associated with dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and others. An introduction to the six eye movement systems and the terminology associated with the evaluation of each system are reviewed. Assessment of efferent visual function in patients with dementia may be challenging, but familiarity with the potential pathologic eye movement findings in patients with dementia will allow for a focused assessment, diagnosis, and treatment when possible.”
“Transcriptional activity has been shown to relate to the organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the bacterial nucleoid. In particular, highly transcribed genes, RNA polymerases and transcription factors gather into discrete spatial foci called transcription factories.

“Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), in which patie

“Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), in which patients present with damage of autonomic nerve fibres, is one of the most common complications of diabetes. CAN leads to abnormalities in heart rate and vascular dynamics, which are features of diabetic heart failure. Dysregulated neurohormonal activation, an outcome of diabetic neuropathy, has a significant pathophysiological role in diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. Key players in neurohormonal activation include cardioprotective neuropeptides and their receptors, such as substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), atrial natriuretic peptide

(ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic AZD9291 order peptide (CNP). These neuropeptides are released from the peripheral or autonomic nervous system and have vasoactive properties. They are further implicated in cardiomyocyte

hypertrophy, calcium homeostasis, ischaemia-induced angiogenesis, protein kinase C signalling and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Therefore, dysregulation of the expression of neuropeptides or activation of the neuropeptide signalling pathways can negatively affect buy SBC-115076 cardiac homeostasis. Targeting neuropeptides and their signalling pathways might thus serve as new therapeutic interventions in the treatment of heart failure associated with diabetes. This review discusses how neuropeptide dysregulation in diabetes might affect cardiac functions that contribute to the development

of heart failure.”
“Background: Magnesium has antiarrhythmic properties in cellular and experimental models; however, its relation to sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk is unclear.

Objective: We prospectively examined the association between magnesium, as measured in diet and plasma, and risk of SCD.

Design: The analysis was conducted within the Nurses’ Health Study. The association for magnesium intake was examined prospectively in 88,375 women who were free of disease in 1980. Information on magnesium intake, other nutrients, and lifestyle factors was updated every 2-4 y through questionnaires, and 505 cases of sudden or arrhythmic death were documented over 26 y of follow-up. For plasma VX-680 magnesium, a nested case-control analysis including 99 SCD cases and 291 controls matched for age, ethnicity, smoking, and presence of cardiovascular disease was performed.

Results: After multivariable adjustment for confounders and potential intermediaries, the relative risk of SCD was significantly lower in women in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of dietary (relative risk: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.91) and plasma (relative risk: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.60) magnesium. The linear inverse relation with SCD was strongest for plasma magnesium (P for trend = 0.003), in which each 0.25-mg/dL (1 SD) increment in plasma magnesium was associated with a 41% (95% CI: 15%, 58%) lower risk of SCD.

African-American women were significantly more likely to have sev

African-American women were significantly more likely to have severe or very severe symptoms, including heavy or prolonged menses (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.05-2.18) and anemia (RR=2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.09). They also more often reported

that fibroids interfered with physical activities (RR=1.67, 95% CI 1.20-2.32) and relationships (RR=2.27, 95% CI 1.23-4.22) and were more likely to miss days from work (RR=1.77, 95% CI 1.20-2.61). African-American women were more likely to consult friends and family (36 vs. 22%, P=0.004) and health brochures (32 vs. 18%, P<0.001) for health information. Concerns for future fertility GSK2126458 in vitro (RR=2.65, 95% CI 1.93-3.63) and pregnancy (RR=2.89, 95% CI 2.11-3.97) following 5-Fluoracil datasheet fibroid treatments were key concerns for black women. Conclusions: African-American women have more severe symptoms, unique concerns, and different information-seeking behavior for fibroids.”

chiral benzimidazolium salts were synthesized on the basis of abietane and were used as N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in the Heck reaction.”
“Purpose of review

To determine whether alpha-blockers, commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, are associated with prostate cancer risk.

Recent findings

Alpha-blockers have been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer aggressiveness in some observational studies and an increased risk in other studies. However, this relationship is complex as different alpha-blockers have divergent effects in laboratory Adriamycin nmr studies and there are many confounders in daily practice such as differential screening practices.


Both benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are common conditions in the aging male population, such that an interaction between alpha-blockers and

prostate cancer risk is clinically relevant. Prospective evidence is necessary to establish a definitive link.”
“Background: We evaluated how computerized clinical decision support (CDS) affects the counseling women receive when primary care physicians (PCPs) prescribe potential teratogens and how this counseling affects women’s behavior. Methods: Between October 2008 and April 2010, all women aged 18-50 years visiting one of three community-based family practice clinics or an academic general internal medicine clinic were invited to complete a survey 5-30 days after their clinic visit. Women who received prescriptions were asked if they were counseled about teratogenic risks or contraception and if they used contraception at last intercourse. Results: Eight hundred one women completed surveys; 27% received a prescription for a potential teratogen. With or without CDS, women prescribed potential teratogens were more likely than women prescribed safer medications to report counseling about teratogenic risks. However, even with CDS 43% of women prescribed potential teratogens reported no counseling.