73 m2 and proteinuria were aware of having CKD; of those with CKD stage 3, awareness was only 7.5%; for stage 4, awareness was less than 50%. Awareness rates among those with CKD stages 3 or 4 were higher if co-morbid diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension were present, but even then, they were quite Thiazovivin cost low (20 and 12%, respectively). One barrier to overcome in order to ensure greater awareness is a more focused education of physicians, since they are the purveyors of the patients’ medical condition. In one survey, more than one-third of primary care physicians in the US were not aware that family history was a risk factor for CKD, while almost one-quarter did not perceive African–American
ethnicity as a CKD risk factor; in contrast, nearly all perceived diabetes (95%)
and hypertension (97%) as risk factors for CKD. Even more problematic was the fact that while diabetes and hypertension were acknowledged as CKD risk factors, the achieved control rates (defined as reaching guideline goals) sadly remains well below 50% among those treated. What can be done about this problem? There have been many consensus panels over the past decade to approach ways to achieve better blood ARRY-438162 pressure control and educate physicians to the stages of CKD [13, 14]. The road to improving outcomes is to focus on public awareness and screening programs as well as programs to educate both patients and physicians. Data from the KEEP screening program in the US have also indicated that 4EGI-1 mw blood pressure values are most likely to be at goal once a patient is aware they have kidney disease . Data from Bolivia highlight the observation that once kidney disease is diagnosed, more appropriate interventions to reduce CKD risk factors such as hypertension are instituted . Programs to address these issues have started around the world, including KEEP-type programs. As a major focus of World Celecoxib Kidney Day this year, the issue is hypertension in CKD (http://www.worldkidneyday.org). Because
of the aging world population and consequent increasing prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, CKD rates will continue to increase. This has and will continue to place an undue economic burden on societies given the costs for an ESRD program. In 2005, the US spent $32 billion dollars on such programs. These facts mandate that measures be put forth to ensure timely detection and prevention of CKD progression. The key to ensure successful prevention of CKD is screening for hypertension, improved testing and diagnosis of predisposing co-morbidities such as diabetes and aggressive treatment to guideline goals. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations (IFKF) have an ambitious long-term goal that worldwide every individual, particularly the patient with diabetes, knows his or her blood pressure values.