Modernisation of fishing technology and improvement of cyclone fo

Modernisation of fishing technology and improvement of cyclone forecasting and radio signalling can reduce risk and improve responses to cyclones. Access to less expensive credit through institutional reform could help transform fishing technology, prevent maladaptation and diversify livelihood strategies as well as reduce the cost of fishing. Institutional reform can also improve enforcement of maritime laws and access to fish market to help reduce the overall costs of fishing business. Enforcement of fishing regulations and provision of Obeticholic Acid in vitro insurance would

increase safety of fishermen. Finally, building fishermen’s human capital and creation of alternative livelihood activities would help diversify their livelihoods. These

findings form the basis for further detailed research into the determinants and implications of such limits and barriers. More studies are needed in order to move towards an improved characterisation of adaptation and to identify JQ1 cell line the most suitable means to overcome the limits and barriers. This paper is part of a PhD study funded by the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission. This work was also supported by the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP), and Sustainability Research Institute of the University of Leeds; Carls Wallace Trust, UK and Annesha Group, Bangladesh. Academic insights gained from engagement with the World Universities Network ‘Limits to Adaptation’ group were influential in the framing of this paper. “
“In April this year (2013) a conference exploring ‘Fuelling the future’ was organised by Shipping Emissions Abatement and Trading (SEAaT) at Norton Rose LLP, London [1]. It focussed on the regulation surrounding Emission Control Areas (ECAs), in particular the enforceable

limits in North West European Waters. Currently, marine fuel oil has high sulphur content and when released via the ships exhaust as sulphur oxides (SOx) it increases the acidification potential of the surrounding atmosphere. The rationale Dipeptidyl peptidase for the ECAs is therefore to limit marine fuel sulphur content in such areas and in turn, minimise the release of SOx. The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Marpol Annex VI stipulates that from 1st January 2015, the maximum allowable sulphur content of marine fuel combusted in an ECA will be 0.1% [2]. Outside of the ECAs Marpol Annex VI limits global marine fuel sulphur content to 0.5% by 2020. There is also a similar requirement to minimise the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The reduction in fuel sulphur content within an ECA is requiring a step-change in thinking for those affected. The shipping industry will no longer be able to burn high sulphur content heavy fuel oil and will either require an alternative fuel, scrubbing or, as a last resort, the potential shut down of routes in affected areas.

1 M NaOH and 30 μL

1 M NaOH and 30 μL Cabozantinib research buy OPT, and then the reading was performed.

Blank values for GSSG were obtained by reading 100 μL deionized water, 170 μL 0.1 M NaOH plus 30 μL OPT, 15 min after incubation at 25 °C. Fluorometric measures of GSH and GSSG were estimated at 460/40 nm emission wavelengths and 360/40 nm excitation wavelengths. The values of fluorescence were converted to μg/mL by comparison with a correspondent standard curve. Data are shown as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) and were analyzed statistically using Instat™ and GraphPad Prism™ software packages. Regression analyses were performed to obtain standard curves of protein, NADH, β-naphthylamine, 4-methoxy-β-naphthylamine, GSH and GSSG. Paired two sided Student’s t-test was performed to compare values of lactate Target Selective Inhibitor Library cost dehydrogenase between renal soluble and solubilized membrane-bound fractions. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Newman–Keuls test when differences were detected, was performed to compare values among groups. Values from a population with equal SDs is a premise of ANOVA, therefore Barlett’s test was applied to verify this hypothesis. In all the calculations, a minimum critical level of p < 0.05 was set. The LD50 corresponded

to 2.08 μg vBj/g body mass and LD50 was used to induce AKI. This value was slightly lower than that found by Ferreira et al. (2005b), that is 2.5 μg vBj/g body mass. Table 1 shows that envenomed mice have reduced hematocrit and plasma urea with increased plasma creatinine and uric acid and unchanged osmolality compared with controls. The increase of creatinine was mitigated by LA, whereas SA restored the normal content of urea in the plasma of animals administered with LD50 of vBj. Both drugs, LA and SA, were similarly efficient to ameliorate the hematocrit and to restore the normal content of uric acid in the plasma of envenomed mice.

Table 2 shows that the LD50 of vBj increased urinary osmolality and creatinine with unchanged uric acid and urea compared with the controls. However, LA associated with LD50 of vBj caused an increase in urinary content of urea compared with the controls. SA decreased the urinary osmolality of Casein kinase 1 envenomed mice to lower levels than the controls and was also effective in restoring the normal levels of creatinine in envenomed mice. As shown in Table 3, the LD50 of vBj unchanged the proteinuria, but reduced proteinemia, effect which was not mitigate by both drugs under study. On the contrary, the association of LA with LD50 of vBj caused intense proteinuria. Lactate dehydrogenase activity of the renal cortex and medulla was higher in SF than in MF (Student’s t-test), at levels (data not shown) similar to previously described by Yamasaki et al. (2008). Table 4 shows that the protein content in the SF of the renal cortex was unchanged by the LD50 of vBj.

Seventy-four thousand nine hundred ninety-two deaths occurred wit

Seventy-four thousand nine hundred ninety-two deaths occurred within 28 days of the date of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, giving an overall case fatality rate of 14.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 14.4%–14.6%). Of these, 10,977 deaths (15%) occurred after discharge from hospital but within 28 days of hemorrhage. Only

312 (3%) of postdischarge deaths were coded as a subsequent hospital admission within the HES dataset. The population characteristics for nonvariceal and variceal hemorrhage are shown in Table 1. The median age for nonvariceal bleeds was 71 years (interquartile range, 50–81 years) and, for variceal bleeds, was 55 years (interquartile range, 45–66 years). Forty-six percent of those presenting DNA-PK inhibitor with nonvariceal hemorrhage had no comorbidity recorded, compared with 67% of those presenting with variceal hemorrhage after the exclusion of liver disease from the calculation of comorbidity. The population age structure and comorbidity varied over the study period (Figure 2) with a peak in the proportion of nonvariceal admissions over 80 PI3K inhibitor years old in 2002. This matched

the peak in case fatality in the same year (Table 1). There was a reduction over time in the proportion of those presenting with variceal hemorrhage who were less than 60 years old (Figure 2). The comorbidity for both groups increased over the study period. Median length of stay for nonvariceal hemorrhage was 4 days (interquartile range, 1–8 days) and for variceal hemorrhage was 7 days (interquartile range, 4–12 days). Idoxuridine The length of stay reduced over the study period for nonvariceal hemorrhage from 4 (interquartile range, 2–8 days) to 3 (interquartile range, 1–6 days) (P < .001 nonparametric test for trend), but there was no reduction for variceal hemorrhage. The overall 28-day case fatality following a nonvariceal hemorrhage admission was 14% and, following a variceal hemorrhage admission, was 23% (Table 1). From 1999 to 2007,

the unadjusted 28-day mortality following nonvariceal hemorrhage reduced from 14.7% to 13.1% (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% CI: 0.84–0.90). The unadjusted mortality following variceal hemorrhage reduced from 24.6% to 20.9% (unadjusted OR, 0.81; (95% CI: 0.69–0.95). Twenty-eight-day mortality for an acute admission with hemorrhage reduced over the study period for nonvariceal hemorrhage from 11.3% to 9.3% (unadjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77–0.85) and, for variceal hemorrhage, from 21.3% to 17.3% (unadjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62–0.95). Twenty-eight-day mortality for cases with an inpatient hemorrhage also reduced over the study period, for nonvariceal hemorrhage from 20.0% to 18.4% (unadjusted OR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86–0.95) and, for variceal hemorrhage, from 32% to 29% (unadjusted OR, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.67–1.14).

The authors thank the patients and their families for participati

The authors thank the patients and their families for participating in this study. The authors also thank the staff of the Cognitive Assessment Unit of the Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Eugenio Medea for help in collecting data. This

work was supported by grant GUP04001 from TELETHON-Unione Italiana Lotta Distrofia Muscolare. “
“In the article “Giant Pediatric Aneurysmal Bone Cysts of the Occipital Bone: Case Report and Review of the Literature” by Genizi et al. in the July 2011 issue (2011;45:42-44; doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.01.008), the author line was incorrect. The corrected author line and affiliations appear below. The authors regret the errors. Jacob Genizi MDa,∗, Isaac Srugo MDa, Dina Selleck Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library EPZ015666 molecular weight Attias MDb, Liat Ben-Sira MDc, Jacob Braun MDd, Ellen S. Bamberger MDa, Nevo Margalit MDe, Shlomi Constantini MDe a Department of Pediatrics, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa, Israel b Hemato-Oncology Unit, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa, Israel c Pediatric Radiology Unit, Dana Children’s Hospital, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv,

Israel d Department of Radiology, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Rappaport School of Medicine, Haifa, Israel e Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children’s Hospital, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel “
“In the article “Dual Diagnosis of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency and GM1 Gangliosidosis” by Ong et al. in the March 2012 issue (2012;46:178-181; doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.12.005), “15 base pair homozygous deletion” should read “16 base pair homozygous deletion” in both the abstract and the penultimate sentence of the fourth paragraph in the Case Report section. The authors regret the error. “
“In the article “A Treatable Cause of Ataxia in Children” by Facchini et al. in the February 2001 issue (2001;24:135-138; doi: 10.1016/S0887-8994(00)00241-1),

the author line was incorrect. The corrected author line and affiliations appear below. The authors regret the error. Sergio A. Facchini MDa,c, Muslim M. Jami MDc, Ronald W. Neuberg MDb,c, April D. Sorrell MDb,c aChild Neurology Division, University of South Carolina, Megestrol Acetate Columbia, South Carolina bDivision of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina cUSC Department of Pediatrics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina “
“Drooling is normal in the growing child up to the age of 18 months. Beyond the age of 4 years, it is abnormal and frequently persists in children with poor neuromuscular coordination, in children with mental disabilities, and in children who lack structural integrity in their jaws, lips, or oral cavity [1]. It is widely accepted that drooling in cerebral palsy is caused by oral motor dysfunction [2], [3], [4] and [5].

Selected cases with favorable lesions (small [<5 cm] superficial

Selected cases with favorable lesions (small [<5 cm] superficial tumors or small deep

tumors) that can be excised with clear margins (>1 cm) may be treated with surgery alone. Radiation OSI-744 research buy therapy should be offered to patients with STS who are at risk of local recurrence. It can be administered as EBRT or BT or in combination. The advantages of BT are the localized nature of the radiation and relative dose sparing of the surrounding tissue. EBRT has the benefit of being able to encompass large volumes of tissue at risk of recurrence, and it is not limited by anatomic constraints. The additional risks of BT are surgical as both BT and EBRT can produce acute or chronic radiation-induced side effects. There are BTK inhibitor cell line no randomized data or consensus

on whether it is preferable to use EBRT alone, BT monotherapy, or BT as a boost in the various clinical settings described in this article. The clinician must use the modality or combination of modalities that are most familiar to the treatment team and suitable to the patient. In the MSKCC randomized trial, BT monotherapy was described as useful for high-grade lesions with favorable surgical findings. This single-institution study did not demonstrate a reduction in local recurrence for low-grade STS, some of which were large and locally recurrent; this finding has not been reported by other investigators. We believe, patients with larger (>5 cm), high grade, or incompletely resected disease (microscopic or gross positive margins) must be treated with sufficient margins and doses high enough to achieve local tumor control. In this setting, depending on morbidity and logistic Cediranib (AZD2171) considerations, BT boost may be preferable to BT alone. In cases

of recurrent cancer, but without previous radiation therapy, it is recommended that BT be used in conjunction with EBRT. In a noteworthy publication MSKCC used their prospective BT database to compare BT monotherapy to EBRT alone in the form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Despite having more adverse features including positive margins in the IMRT cohort, the LC was better (91% IMRT vs. 81% BT, p = 0.04) (84). This LC rate in the IMRT cohort is similar to some studies using a combination of EBRT and BT [28], [38], [40], [41] and [51]. The authors believe that these results merit further investigations that compare or combine the BT and IMRT. BT is a useful component of the treatment of STS. The radiation oncologist and surgeon must work closely together to determine the extent of disease and to correctly place and stabilize the BT catheters for optimal results. Three-dimensional simulation and treatment planning are required for defining the clinical treatment volume and to identify dose constraints to OAR. Depending on the type and extent of surgery, it is usually advisable to wait several days to allow wound healing before starting treatment.

The combination of photodiodes and electrodes therefore provides

The combination of photodiodes and electrodes therefore provides point-to-point stimulus of retinal bipolar cells, eliminating the need for an external camera and permitting object tracking INK-128 via saccadic eye movements. The device was trialed on 9 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (n=8) and cone-rod

dystrophy (n=1), resulting in light perception by 8 patients with one excluded due to complications during the implantation procedure ( Stingl et al., 2013). Functionally, the results were variable, with 7/8 patients able to localize a light source, 5/8 able to detect motion and grating acuity testing able to be performed in 6/8 recipients. The device was recently approved for marketing in the European Union (Retina Implant AG, 2014). Whilst Alpha IMS is wirelessly powered via a subdermal coil behind the ear that is tethered to the implant (Stingl et al., 2013), Chow et al. (2004) recently described an alternative photodiode-based array with 5000 stimulating elements that is powered by incident light.

This device, referred to by its developers as the “Artificial Silicon Retina” (ASR), has undergone limited clinical trials (Chow et al., 2010). Bionic Vision Australia is also developing a suprachoroidal retinal implant. In the popular press, the group recently reported on the first human implantation of a 24-electrode prototype device (Bionic Vision Australia, 2012), with development and testing of improved devices ongoing (Villalobos et al., 2013). Veraart et al. (1998) Nutlin-3a datasheet were the first to attempt electrical stimulation of the optic nerve as a basis upon which to develop a visual prosthesis. The method can be applied in blind patients with

surviving retinal ganglion cells and/or cAMP an intact optic nerve, and was initially trialed on a 59-year old female with retinitis pigmentosa (Veraart et al., 1998). After demonstrating that phosphenes could be reproducibly elicited at safe stimulation currents, the group developed a computational model that could predict the location and size of percepts as a function of stimulus parameters (Delbeke et al., 2003). With sufficient training, recipients could recognize and orient complex shapes (Brelen et al., 2005 and Veraart et al., 2003) and perform object localization, discrimination and grasping (Duret et al., 2006). Phosphenes could be elicited in all four visual field quadrants, although they were irregularly distributed and subtended a relatively narrow portion of the horizontal field (Delbeke et al., 2003). The surgical technique was relatively simple, with the first patient receiving an implant consisting of a four-electrode, non-penetrating silicon cuff implanted around the optic nerve, accessed via a pterional craniotomy and a trans-Sylvian approach (Veraart et al., 1998).

After washing whole blood and removal of plasma and buffy coat, i

After washing whole blood and removal of plasma and buffy coat, in most experiments RBC suspensions were placed in tonometers (Eschweiler, Kiel, Germany) at 20% haematocrit (Hct), to equilibrate selleck chemicals at the requisite O2 tension. Tonometers were flushed with warm, humidified gas mixtures, supplied at the appropriate O2 tension using a Wösthoff gas mixing pump [21]. For CLT, dissolved in DMSO, appropriate controls were all treated with the same concentration of solvent (< 0.1% final). To determine the activity of the K+ transport pathways, K+ influx

was usually measured at 37 °C using 86Rb+ as a congener for K+[22] and [23]. Cells were taken from the tonometers and diluted 10-fold into saline, pre-equilibrated at the appropriate O2 tension, at 260 mOsm kg −1 and pH 7, conditions chosen in order to stimulate the K+–Cl− cotransporter (KCC). 86Rb+ was added in 150 mM KNO3 to give a final [K+] of 7.5 mM in all experiments except those with HK saline and A23187-treated RBCs. After incubation with radioisotope for 10 min, RBCs were washed to remove extracellular 86Rb+, five-times in an ice-cold MgCl2 wash solution. For K+ efflux experiments,

RBCs were loaded overnight at 4 °C by addition of 86Rb+ after which cells were washed five times in an ice-cold wash solution. RBCs were then suspended at 2% haematocrit (Hct) in standard saline at 37 °C. Aliquots were taken at 5 min intervals for 30–60 min and spun through phthalate oil. The cell pellet was lysed with detergent, deproteinised with TCA, and counted by liquid scintillation (cpm). A semilog plot (of cpm at time = t/cpm at time = 0) was used to determine the rate constant for K+ efflux. Except for experiments to measure Na+/K+ pump activity, ouabain (100 μM) and bumetanide (10 μM) were present in all experiments to obviate any K+ transport through the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter, respectively. Either microhaematocrit determination or the cyanohaemoglobin method was used to measure the final Hct. KCC activity

was assayed as Cl−-dependent K+ influx; Gardos channel activity as the CLT-sensitive (5 μM) K+ influx; Na+/K+ pump activity as the ouabain-sensitive (100 μM) K+ influx and Psickle as the deoxygenation-induced K+ influx measured in the absence of Cl−. Methamphetamine For phosphatidylserine (PS) labelling, 5 μl aliquots (105 RBCs) of each sample were placed in 250 μl of LA-FITC binding buffer and incubated in the dark at room temperature for 10 min. RBCs were then pelleted by centrifugation for 10 s at 16,100 g, washed once in LK or HK HBS to remove unbound LA-FITC and kept on ice until flow cytometry analysis. Unlike annexin-V, LA-FITC binds to PS in a Ca2 +-independent manner and control experiments showed that binding was irreversible. Inhibitors were tested for self-fluorescence at their highest concentration with unlabelled RBCs.

Thus, our next step should be a “realistic model” including not o

Thus, our next step should be a “realistic model” including not only an organ but also the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. However, there PI3K Inhibitor Library in vitro are difficult hurdles to overcome to create such an ideal model by using this injection technique. Our preliminary

study of use of other organs (eg, esophagus, duodenum, and colon, but not the rectum, revealed that creation of blebs in the duodenum and colon was difficult because of the possibly easy perforation by the needle because of the thinner GI tract wall, and there was only a small space in the esophagus and duodenum in which to perform the procedures. Therefore, in this study, we selected the stomach and rectum. In fact, stomach and rectum but esophagus, duodenum and colon, are used in the ESD training models. Nevertheless,

if we could create blebs in the duodenum by using appropriate needles and/or injection materials with available EASIE-type tabletop ex vivo, it may be a realistic ERCP-related procedure model. Apart from EP, for the current “realistic ES,” the over-the-wire technique is mandatory. However, the concept of this study was to practice Apitolisib molecular weight the specific isolated skills needed to perform ES and EP. Although an “all-in-one” model would be ideal, basic techniques like ES may be taught and practiced on simpler models. Therefore, more advanced models can be used to put component steps together in more integrated total procedures, which include, for example, coordination with assistants, wire work, and stent placement for a “realistic ERCP. In this preliminary study, a novel method was used to create an artificial papilla, not only for conventional ES by using a pull-type sphincterotome, but also for precutting by using a needle-knife. Important for the creation of an adequate artificial papilla by using this technique is the use of 0.4% hyaluronate solution. This was demonstrated in an experimental study that showed that injection of 0.4% hyaluronate solution was

superior Dolutegravir clinical trial to physiological saline solution, 50% dextrose, hypertonic saline solution (3.7% NaCl), and glycerol for submucosal injection.18 Because of this, hyaluronate solution has been used for EMR.19 and 20 Other agents for prolonged submucosal injection include succinylated gelatin21 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.22 In terms of stomach models, the choice of the injection site for the creation of a simulated papilla is also important. Our study suggests that the anterior wall of the proximal stomach is the ideal location for creating simulated papillae for realistic training of ES, both in vivo and ex vivo. We believe that creation of a mucosal bleb depends on mucosal thickness. This is based on the fact that the mucosa of the porcine stomach at the greater curvature and antrum is thicker than the proximal anterior, posterior, and lesser curvature.

The peak MEBR was calculated by replacing IE with IEP in Eq (1)

The peak MEBR was calculated by replacing IE with IEP in Eq. (1) where IEP is the maximum intensity of backscatter from the embolus. The duration of the embolus was also extracted in milliseconds and the zero-crossing frequency (ZCF) in Hertz. The latter was then used to calculate embolus velocity via the Doppler equation. Velocities selleckchem are

angle-corrected based on a Doppler angle of 30°. Pearson correlation tests were then used to discern if any correlation exists between these properties. Eleven patients tested positive for a PFO yielding 331 embolic signals with intensities less than 35 dB. Table 1 displays the average values for various signal properties along with median values and 5% and 95% percentiles due to the non-normal distribution of these properties. 90% of gaseous emboli possess MEBR values between 7.9 and 21.7 dB and peak MEBR values between 17.4 and 31.3 dB. The majority of microbubble signals lasted between 12.3 and 91.6 ms

with a median signal duration of 33.3 ms. Combining the above information a characteristic peak for microbubble signals was observed with a peak at ∼15.6 dB and duration of ∼33.3 ms (see Fig. 1). The median ZCF of 520 Hz corresponds to an estimated velocity of 23.2 cm s−1 and 90% of the signals had velocities between approximately 10.9 and 45.6 cm s−1. Table 2 lists the Pearson correlation coefficients for various pairs of embolic signal parameters. Pearson correlation tests showed a weak positive HDAC inhibitor correlation between estimated velocity and duration (0.24, p < 0.0001). A weak negative correlation was also found for the average MEBR and embolic signal duration (−0.16, p < 0.01). The signal properties from 331 microbubbles have revealed some interesting distinguishing features that differ from the same signal properties previously analysed for solid emboli [11]. The majority of solid emboli in [11] had signal durations between 6.2 and 40.5 ms which are much shorter than the range observed for gaseous emboli in this study (12.3–91.6 ms). OSBPL9 Solid emboli had a distinctive peak at ∼7 dB with a duration of ∼12.5 ms which contrasts

with that observed for gaseous emboli (peak at ∼15.6 dB, duration ∼33.3 ms). This indicates that gaseous emboli tend to have higher MEBR values with longer durations compared to solid emboli. A weak negative correlation was observed between MEBR and embolic signal duration for microbubbles (−0.16, p < 0.01) compared to the positive correlation found for solid emboli (0.57, p < 0.0001). This positive correlation was also noted by Martin et al. who where studying the relationship between thrombus size and MEBR [12]. They found that larger solid emboli generated signals of longer duration. The weak negative correlation between MEBR and signal duration for microbubbles may relate to a preferred trajectory through the insonated vessel. The velocity distribution shown in Fig.


to recommendations in Frankowski et al (2009),


to recommendations in Frankowski et al. (2009), the ultimate interpretation of seismo-acoustic data, leading to their conversion into geological cross-sections, should be preceded by drillings and analysis of the drill core samples, as well as verification of the findings of geophysical surveys other selleckchem than acoustic measurements. During the interpretation and processing of the seismo- acoustic data, geological-engineering cross-sections are drawn showing the boundaries between the sediments and the thicknesses of the individual layers. Devices used in seismo-acoustic surveys, known as sub-bottom profiling devices, are constructed in the same way as bathymetric echo-sounders, but they work at lower frequencies, most often not higher than a dozen or so kHz. They also have a higher emitted signal energy in comparison to hydrographic and navigable echo sounders. Geophysical vessels have their seismo-acoustic equipment incorporated permanently in the hull. Smaller craft use towed or side-mounted submerged Raf inhibitor devices. Because these consume a relatively large amount of power, the supply to the sub-bottom

profilers requires 230 V wiring, which is available on bigger vessels only. The StrataBox, produced by SyQwest Inc. (USA), is one of the few devices powered by 10–30 V DC. Having been purchased recently by the Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IBW PAN), this equipment works with an acoustic frequency of 10 kHz and ensures penetration down to 40 m below the bottom for a sea bed built of cohesive deposits. For sandy sediments, the penetration range is no more than a few metres, but the transducer is light enough for it to be mounted on the side of a small boat. The power supply is 12 V or 24 V (DC). According to the specification sheet, the StrataBox can operate at maximum depth of 150 m; the minimum depth depends on the type of sediment on the sea bed surface. In addition, the user manual recommends find more that the distance between the transducer (its lower submerged surface) and the sea

bottom should not exceed 2.5 m. The surveys described in the present study have proved this minimum distance to be slightly smaller, namely 1.8–2.0 m. Measurements carried out in May 2009 near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) at Lubiatowo focused on surveying the structure of the non-cohesive sea bottom. It was known from analysis of surficial sea bed samples taken previously at Lubiatowo that the sea bottom consists mostly of fine sand with a median grain diameter of d50 = 0.20–0.25 mm; locally it is coarser – d50 ≈ 0.4 mm. The objective of the seismo-acoustic survey using the StrataBox was to determine the thickness and offshore range of the dynamic layer as conventionally defined ( Boldyrev 1991, Subotowicz 1996).