2011;18(12):6 CrossRef 6 Oxford JS, Leuwer M Acute sore throat

2011;18(12):6.CrossRef 6. Oxford JS, Leuwer M. Acute sore throat revisited: clinical and experimental evidence for the efficacy of over-the-counter AMC/DCBA throat lozenges. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65(5):524–30.PubMedCrossRef 7. Van Driel ML, De Sutter A, Deveugele M,

et al. Are sore throat patients who hope for antibiotics actually asking for pain relief? Ann Fam Med. 2006;4(6):494–9.PubMedCrossRef 8. Butler CC, Rollnick S, Pill R, et al. Understanding the culture of prescribing: qualitative study of general practitioners’ and patients’ perceptions of I-BET151 antibiotics for sore throats. Brit Med J. 1998;317(7159):637–42.PubMedCrossRef 9. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE clinical guideline 69: respiratory tract infections—antibiotic prescribing. http://​www.​nice.​org.​uk/​nicemedia/​pdf/​CG69FullGuidelin​e.​pdf. Accessed Mar 2013. 10. Buchholz V, Leuwer M, Ahrens J, et al. Topical antiseptics for the treatment of sore throat block voltage-gated neuronal sodium channels in a local anaesthetic-like manner. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Archiv Pharmacol. 2009;380(2):161–8.CrossRef 11. American Academy click here of Pediatrics. Caring for a

child with a viral infection. http://​www.​healthychildren.​org/​English/​health-issues/​conditions/​ear-nose-throat/​Pages/​Caring-for-a-Child-with-a-Viral-Infection.​aspx?​. Accessed Mar 2013. 12. Berry P. Rapid relief of acute sore throat with strepsils lozenges: a single blind, comparative study. see more London: Royal Society of Medicine Press; 2008. 13. McNally D, Simpson M, Morris C, et al. Rapid relief of acute sore throat with AMC/DCBA throat lozenges: randomised controlled trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64(2):194–207.PubMedCrossRef 14. Limb M, Connor A, Pickford M, et al. Scintigraphy for can be used to compare delivery of sore throat formulations. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63(4):606–12.PubMedCrossRef 15. Soldatskii YL, Onufrieva EK, Gasparyan SF, et al. Comparative effectiveness of topical antibacterial therapy of acute and relapsing chronic pharyngitis in

children by means of throat lozenges and medicinal aerosol spray (in Russian). Attending Physician, Clinical Trials 2008, 1.8. http://​www.​lvrach.​ru. Accessed Mar 2013. 16. Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). Reflection paper: formulations of choice for the paediatric population. EMEA/CHMP/PEG/194810/2005. http://​www.​ema.​europa.​eu/​docs/​en_​GB/​document_​library/​Scientific_​guideline/​2009/​09/​WC500003782.​pdf. Accessed Mar 2013. 17. Matsui D. Assessing the palatability of medications in children. Paediatr Perinat Drug Ther. 2007;8(2):55–60.CrossRef 18. Pawar S, Kumar A. Issues in the formulation of drugs for oral use in children. Pediatr Drugs. 2002;4(6):371–9. 19. Hames H, Seabrook JA, Matsui D, et al. A palatability study of a flavoured desamethasone preparation versus prednisolone liquid in children with asthma exacerbation in a pediatric emergency department. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;15(1):e95–8.PubMed 20.

This often develops during or immediately following sternal re-ap

This often develops during or immediately following sternal re-approximation, however, it may not develop for hours or even days after chest closure [2–6]. TCS secondary to trauma is exceedingly rare. A review of the literature revealed only one prior report of TCS in the setting of trauma. In that report, Kaplan et al [1] presented a case of a patient with Selleck AZD3965 gunshot wounds through the heart and descending thoracic

aorta who developed TCS upon clamshell thoracotomy closure. In that case, closure of the chest precipitated an immediate elevation in airway pressure and rapid hemodynamic collapse. Given the extent of his injuries and the incision used, it would be reasonable to consider both of his pleural spaces and his mediastinum as one contiguous space, and that the development of TCS likely affected all thoracic structures equally. Intensive PLX-4720 nmr resuscitative and surgical measures are not uncommon in trauma surgery, yet the development of TCS is extremely rare. We believe that some of the

challenges associated with our patient may have contributed to the development of TCS. We have identified certain points that we believe merit increased discussion. 1) Prolonged pre-operative period: Our patient had an hour of pre-operative management during which he had a surgically amenable injury. In many Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase ways, our patient typifies the dilemma of the “”meta-stable”" trauma patient: that patient who responds to initial resuscitative measures yet for whom there BMS345541 mw remains significant concern that surgical intervention will be necessary. As described, this patient did not meet the criteria for immediate thoracotomy based on chest tube output (< 1500 mL of initial output), however this evaluation was confounded by the fact that the thoracostomy tube was clotted. Reliance upon the chest tube output is predicated upon fully expanding

the lung; this was not the case in our patient. A repeat chest x-ray would have prompted another chest tube (the course of action that in our case followed the chest CT); therefore, had a chest x-ray been done prior the chest CT (a time interval of 20 minutes) then the criteria for an immediate thoracic exploration would have been met and the patient would have been taken to the operating room approximately 30 minutes earlier. It is possible to infer that that delay may have contributed to the degree of ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with hemorrhage, though as noted, our patient had an appearance of stability and cessation of bleeding during this period of time resulting from temporary tamponade of the vascular injury within the mediastinal hematoma.

These nuclear-encoded chloroplast

proteins are synthesise

These nuclear-encoded chloroplast

proteins are synthesised by cytoplasmatic ribosomes and transported post-translationally into the chloroplast. Some of them are assembled with the plastid-encoded PF-04929113 proteins to form functional complexes (e.g. Rubisco, ATP-synthase). For reliable measuring, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes, which can be nuclear- or plastid-encoded, selection of multiple appropriate reference genes for normalisation is very important. Gene expression levels have commonly been determined using northern blot analysis. However, this technique is time-consuming and requires a large quantity of RNA (Dean et al. 2002). The most widely used mRNA quantification methods nowadays are real-time fluorescence detection assays (Heid et al. 1996), due to their conceptual simplicity, sensitivity, practical ease and high-throughput capacity (Vandesompele et al. 2002; Bustin 2000). Mostly, normalisation of gene expression has been studied by using one selected MK-4827 “housekeeping gene” which is involved in basic cellular processes, and which is supposed to have a uniform level of expression across

different treatments, organs and developmental stages (Vandesompele et al. 2002). However, many studies have shown that the expression of these “housekeeping genes” can vary with the experimental conditions (Czechowski et al. 2005; Thellin et al. 1999; Gonçalves et al. 2005). Furthermore, as a new standard in real-time PCR, at least two or three housekeeping genes should be used as internal standards,

because the use of a single gene for normalisation can lead to large errors (Thellin et al. 1999; Vandesompele et al. 2002; Gutierrez et al. 2008). Studies on the identification of multiple reference genes mainly deal with human ever tissues, bacteria and viruses. Only a few publications exist for plants: for potato under biotic and abiotic stress (Nicot et al. 2005); for rice under hormone, salt and drought stress (Kim et al. 2003); for Arabidopsis selleck chemicals thaliana and tobacco under heat-stress and developmental changes (Volkov et al. 2003); for maritime pine during embryogenesis (Gonçalves et al. 2005) and for Arabidopsis thaliana under different environmental conditions and developmental stages (Czechowski et al. 2005; Remans et al. 2008). Reference genes for normalisation of plastid-encoded genes have not yet been determined. We selected from previous reports and micro-array data five nuclear-encoded and nine plastid-encoded reference genes and evaluated these in transgenic tobacco plants with increased (Pssu-ipt) and diminished cytokinin (35S:AtCKX1) content and their respective wild types, using the geNorm (Vandesompele et al. 2002) algorithm.

The oxygen for interface W oxidation should come from the La2O3 f

The oxygen for interface W oxidation should come from the La2O3 film. It was proposed that the oxygen in W may diffuse into the La2O3 film to fill up the oxygen vacancies there [14]. Oxygen vacancies are the major defect centers in La2O3 which result in several instability issues and enhance the gate leakage current [15–17]. The present result indicates that a reverse process may have been Selleck 3-deazaneplanocin A taken place in the present samples. That means a high-temperature process may

lead to the out-diffusion of oxygen to the W/La2O3 interface, and that increases oxygen vacancies in the La2O3 film. In addition, La-O-W bonding with a peak energy of 532.2 eV was found. For the case of WO x phase enhancement, it should not affect the EOT as it can be considered as part of the metal electrode; on the other hand, the effects of La-O-W bonding have never been explored, and it should have some impact in making the effective EOT thicker. Figure 1 W 4f XPS spectra with Gaussian

decomposition. This figure shows various oxidized states of tungsten near the W/La2O3 interface. (a) As-deposited film. (b) Sample with thermal annealing at 600°C for 30 min. check details A stronger WO x peak was observed. Figure 2 O 1s spectra taken near the W/La 2 O 3 interface. (a) Three oxidation states, corresponding to WO3, WO x , and La-O, were found for the as-deposited film. (b) After thermal annealing, an additional peak, attributing to La-O-W bonding, was found at an energy of 532.2 eV. Silicon/high-kinterface High-k can react, especially in the presence of a silicon oxide layer, with the silicon substrate, Phosphoprotein phosphatase and the electronic bonding structure at the La2O3/Si interface should be much more complicated than the SiO2/Si case. It was known that the interface bonding may lead to either an insulating layer (silicate bonding) or JNJ-26481585 conductive layer (silicide bonding) [1, 2]. Most of the high-k

silicides are conductive. The interfacial silicide layer will not affect the EOT but the interface metal-Si bonding in the interface trap precursors and results in the channel mobility degradation and other instabilities [1, 15, 16]. Most of the high-k materials including hafnium oxide and lanthanum oxide are only marginally stable against the formation of silicates. The device properties can be improved with the interfacial silicate layer [1]. However, this layer has much smaller k values and becomes the lower bound of the thinnest EOT, and needs to be minimized for the subnanometer EOT dielectric. Figure  3 shows the La 3d XPS spectra at different depths. The different depths were obtained by argon sputtering for 2.5 to 8 min, and all the XPS analyses were made at a take-off angle of 45°. This treatment should be able to minimize the artifacts due to ion knock-on effects. The bulk La 3d3/2 XPS spectra shows a main peak energy of 851.9 eV and a satellite peak energy of 855.6 eV [1]. As sputtered closer to the substrate, the main peak of La 3d3/2 shifts to an even higher energy side of 852.

“Erratum to: Clin Exp Nephrol DOI 10 1007/s10157-009-0256-

“Erratum to: Clin Exp Nephrol DOI 10.1007/s10157-009-0256-5 The authors’ affiliations appeared incorrectly in the article cited above. The correct affiliations are as follows: H. A. Omar · M. A. Alzahrani · A. A. A. Al bshabshe · A. Assiri · M. Shalaby · A. Dwedar Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University and Asser Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”
“Erratum to: Clin Exp Nephrol (2004) 8:183–187 DOI 10.1007/s10157-004-0307-x This article has been retracted BMN 673 in vitro because it cited

as a major source the article “Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised SN-38 controlled trial”, which had been retracted by The Lancet. The editors, Clinical and Experimental Nephrology”
“Erratum to: Clin Exp Nephrol DOI 10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x In Table 3, in the column headed “Proteinuria (+)”, the “Estimated number of Japanese adults in 2005” in the 30–59 age-group should be 823881, not 8238881. The corrected table is shown here. Table 3 Prevalence rates of CKD stages in Japanese adults (20 years or older), and estimated number of CKD cases per CKD stage based

on the 2005 census GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) Total Proteinuria (+) Proteinuria (−) Prevalence rate (%)  GFR EPZ015938 chemical structure ≥90 27.8 0.6 27.2  60–89 61.6 1.7 60.0  30–59 10.4 0.8 9.6  <30 0.2 0.1 0.1 Stage 3  50–59 7.6 0.4 7.2  40–49 2.3 0.3 2.0  30–39 0.6 0.1 0.4 Estimated Mirabegron number of Japanese adults in 2005  GFR ≥90 28639274 605313 28033961  60–89 63576938 1708870 61868068  30–59 10743236 823881 9919355

 <30 236569 125190 111379 Stage 3  50–59 7809261 425146 7384116  40–49 2363987 267158 2096828  30–39 569988 131577 438411"
“Erratum to: Clin Exp Nephrol DOI 10.1007/s10157-009-0192-4 Errors appeared in the article cited above, as follows: Abstract: There was a mistake in the third sentence. The sentence should read: A newly developed, programmable HBPM device (HEM-5041, Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan) can record blood pressure up to 600 times and measure nighttime blood pressure automatically. Introduction, second paragraph, lines 10–11: The sentence should read: A recently developed HBPM device (HEM-5041, Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan) can record blood pressure 600 times in total and be programmed to measure blood pressure up to 20 times during the night. Table 2: In the first column, “Daytime” should have been “Whole day” and “Nighttime” should have been “Daytime”. The corrected table is as follows: Table 2 Comparisons of percentage nighttime fall   HBPM ABPM P Whole day  SBP 5.0 ± 0.8 11.6 ± 0.7 <0.0001  DBP 8.6 ± 1.2 16.1 ± 1.0 <0.0001  PR/HR 9.1 ± 1.2 18.9 ± 1.0 <0.0001 Daytime  SBP 5.3 ± 1.0 14.7 ± 0.9 <0.0001  DBP 9.6 ± 1.4 19.9 ± 1.1 <0.0001  PR/HR 7.4 ± 1.4 23.5 ± 1.2 <0.

However, those based on unsound scientific results and/or little

However, those based on unsound scientific results and/or little to no data supporting the ergogenic value of the actual supplement/technique may not be worthwhile. The sports nutrition specialist should be a resource find more to help their clients interpret the scientific and medical research that may impact their welfare and/or help them train more wisely and effectively. The following are recommended questions to ask when evaluating the potential ergogenic value of a supplement. Does The Theory Make Sense? Most supplements that have been marketed to improve health and/or exercise performance are based on theoretical applications derived

from basic and/or clinical research studies. Based on these preliminary studies, a training device or supplement is often buy I-BET-762 marketed to people proclaiming the benefits observed in these basic research studies. Although the theory may appear relevant, critical analysis of this process often reveals flaws in scientific logic and/or that the claims made don’t quite match up with the literature cited. By evaluating the literature on your own you can discern whether a supplement has been based on sound scientific evidence or not. To do so, it is suggested you read reviews about the training method, nutrient, and/or supplement

from researchers who have been intimately involved in this line of research and/or consult reliable references about nutritional and herbal supplements, such as the JISSN [3, 5]. We also suggest Niclosamide doing a search on the nutrient/supplement on the National Library of Medicine’s

Pub Med Online http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov. A quick look at these references will often help determine if the theory is plausible or not. In our experience, proponents of ergogenic aids often overstate claims made about training devices and/or C646 dietary supplements while opponents of dietary supplements and ergogenic aids are either unaware and/or ignorant of research supporting their use. The sports nutrition specialist has the responsibility to know the literature and/or search available databases to evaluate whether there is merit or not to a proposed ergogenic aid. Is There Any Scientific Evidence Supporting The Ergogenic Value? The next question to ask is whether there is any well-controlled data showing effectiveness of the proposed ergogenic aid works as claimed in athletes or people involved in training. The first place to look is the list of references cited in marketing material supporting their claims. We look to see if the abstracts or articles cited are general references or specific studies that have evaluated the efficacy of the nutrient/supplement. We then critically evaluate the abstracts and articles by asking a series of questions.

Gibberellins producing fungal genes cluster have been recently id

Gibberellins producing fungal genes cluster have been recently identified for Phaeosphaeria sp. L487 [37], Gibberella fujikuroi, Sphaceloma manihoticola[38] etc. Previous studies have shown that Penicillium citrinum[39], P. paxilli[40], P. funiculosum[17] produces gibberellins. It suggests the existence of GAs gene cluster in Penicillium spp.; hence, needs further genomic analyses at transcriptomics

levels. In endophyte-host symbioses, consequences and SGC-CBP30 order interaction of secondary metabolites may be a contribution of the fungal endophyte to its host-plant to establish a mutualistic relationship [32, 41]. Though, this process is very slow and the quantities of metabolites are very minute depending upon host and endophyte, but one way or the other, this barter trade always supports the

host to counteract stress periods. The phytohormones synthesis potential gives additional benefits to the host plants in mitigating the adverse affects of extreme environmental conditions salinity, drought and temperature stress as shown by Redman et al. [16], Khan et al. [17] and Hamilton and Cilengitide supplier Bauerle [31]. Plants treated with the culture filtrate and propagules of endophytes are often healthier than endophyte-free ones [19, 32]. Indeed, the endophyte-associations have enhanced biomass of barley [16], tomato [15], soybean [17] and rice [16] plants under various abiotic stress conditions like salinity, drought and high temperature.

Pepper plants are adversely affected by abiotic stresses which retard their yield. It was observed that P. resedanum selleck kinase inhibitor -associated plants had higher shoot length, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis rate and low electrolytic leakages as compared to non-inoculated control. The non-inoculated plants, on the check details other hand, deprived of such association results in retarded growth and metabolism whilst they loss high plant biomass. This is also in conformity with the findings of Hamilton et al. [18] and Hamilton and Bauerle [31]. ROS generation and oxidative stress modulation It was found that the activities of antioxidants and related enzymes were significantly higher in endophyte-associated plants under osmotic imbalance induced ROS generation. With or without osmotic stress, endophyte elicitation has significantly regulated the antioxidant activities as compared to control and sole SA treated plants. It was shown that the responses of ROS generation and antioxidant signaling were similar to the effects caused by pathogenic and mutualistic microorganisms [42]. As both are different forms of consortiums however, higher antioxidant generation can improve plant defenses against disease and abiotic stress conditions. This was further elucidated by White and Torres [42] and Hamilton et al. [18]. Stress oriented ROS generations are minimized by the antioxidant and related enzymes production insides host-cells.

A) Cytochalasin D; B) Colchicine Monolayers were infected for 6

A) Cytochalasin D; B) Colchicine. Monolayers were infected for 6 h (aEPEC) and 3 h (tEPEC). S. enterica sv Typhimurium and S. flexneri were used as controls and monolayers were infected for 4 h and

6 h, respectively. Results as percent invasion are means ± standard error from at least three independent experiments performed in duplicate. * P < 0.05 by an unpaired, two-tailed t test. HeLa cells are derived DihydrotestosteroneDHT in vivo from a human uterine cervix carcinoma. They are widely used to study bacterial interactions with epithelial cells yet they do not represent an adequate host cell type to mimic human gastrointestinal infections. To examine whether aEPEC strains would also invade intestinal epithelial cells, we infected T84 cells (derived from a colonic adenocarcinoma), cultivated for 14 days for polarization and differentiation, with all 6 aEPEC strains. The ability of these strains to promote A/E lesions in T84 cells was confirmed by FAS (Table 1). In the gentamicin protection assays performed with these cells, ��-Nicotinamide research buy 5 of 6 strains were significantly more invasive than the prototype tEPEC strain E2348/69 (Fig. 1B). The exception was aEPEC 4051-6 (1.5% ± 1.2) that showed similar invasion index as tEPEC E2348/69 (0.5% ± 0.2). The invasion indexes of the 5 aEPEC strains

varied from 5.8% ± 1.7 (aEPEC 4281-7) to 17.8% ± 3.1 (aEPEC 1632-7). These results demonstrate that besides invading HeLa cells, aEPEC strains carrying distinct intimin see more subtypes invade epithelial cells of human intestinal origin to different levels. Interestingly, the aEPEC invasion indexes were significantly higher than that of tEPEC E2348/69, but this comparison

should be made with caution since the incubation-periods used were different. Nonetheless, it has already been demonstrated that tEPEC is unable to efficiently invade fully differentiated intestinal epithelial cells [42]. To confirm invasiveness, we examined T84 cells infected with aEPEC strains by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This approach confirmed that 5 out of 6 aEPEC strains tested promoted A/E lesion formation and were also internalized (Fig. 3A and 3B). Under the conditions used, although some tEPEC E2348/69 cells were intra-cellular, most remained extra-cellular and intimately attached to the epithelial cell surface (Fig. 3C). Except for aEPEC Isotretinoin strains 4281-7 in HeLa cells and 4051-6 in T84 cells, the remaining four strains tested were more invasive than tEPEC E2348/69 and showed heterogeneous invasion index in both HeLa and T84 cells. Figure 3 Transmission electron microscopy of infected polarized and differentiated T84. A) aEPEC 1551-2, B) aEPEC 0621-6 and C) prototype tEPEC E2348/69. Monolayers were infected for 6 h (aEPEC) and 3 h (tEPEC). aEPEC 1551-2 and 0621-6 were selected because, according to the data in Fig. 1B, they presented an average invasion index as compared to the other strains studied. Arrows indicate bacterial-containing vacuoles.

MB participated in the study design and in the interpretation

MB participated in the study design and in the interpretation

of results. KD was responsible for the overall study design, participated in the flow cytometric and immunocytochemical experiments, in the interpretation of results, and helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Cervical carcinoma is the second most common malignancy, and continues to be a leading cause of cancer death in women. It is generally accepted that radical surgery or radiotherapy can be curative for the majority of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. However, the prognosis of locally advanced or bulky disease remains very poor, and the optimal management for those patients is still a matter of debate, BKM120 order FK228 clinical trial new therapeutic strategies, such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and concurrent chemoradiation, have been adopted to improve the prognosis for those patients [1]. Many clinical studies have revealed that NAC is highly effective for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma, the use of NAC followed by radical surgery and/or radiation for the treatment of cervical carcinoma

has been investigated extensively in the past decade, it has been reported that NAC with cisplatinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens have high response rates (ranging from 53% to 94%) [1, 2]. However, those who have a poor response to chemotherapy usually fail to respond to radiotherapy, and have a poor prognosis. Thus, NAC may delay definitive treatment, increase cost, and Selleck I-BET151 result in poorer outcomes in those patients [3]. It is important to select appropriate patients before undergoing NAC; however, the variables used to predict NAC response are infrequently reported in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Cisplatin is considered to be the most effective drug for the treatment of cervical carcinoma, and usually is an essential element in the NAC regimen, but the mechanisms dictating variable response to chemotherapy

among individuals are still unknown. Because platinum compounds produce adducts and breaks in the DNA double helix, individual variability of DNA repair may be Cediranib (AZD2171) relevant in modulating the efficacy of such cytotoxic agents. In resent years, some studies have shown that the molecular condition of DNA repair genes can predict the response of chemotherapy in some human cancers [4]. The presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among patients suggests that genetic variability may contribute to variations in responsiveness to chemotherapy [5]. X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) is one of the most important DNA repair genes. The XRCC1 protein physically interacts with ligase III and poly(ADP-robose) polymerase, acting as a scaffold in the removal of adducts through both single-strand break repair and base excision repair (BER), and in the repair of other types of cisplatin-induced damage, including double-strand breaks, through a nonhomologous end-joining pathway [6].

New York: Wiley; 2001 Competing interests The authors declare th

New York: Wiley; 2001. Competing interests The RG-7388 order authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions KRK and EFN carried out the experiments and contributed to the data analysis. JRH coordinated the study and helped analyze the data. All authors helped draft the manuscript and approved its final form.”
“Background Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is the most promising candidate for the next-generation nonvolatile memory technology due to its simple structure, excellent scalability potential (<10 nm), long endurance, high speed of operation, and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility [1–7]. RRAM

in cross-point architecture, in which top and bottom electrodes are placed at right angle to each other, is very attractive as it offers high-density integration with 4 F 2, F being the minimum feature Adavosertib molecular weight size area; three-dimensional (3D) stacking; and cost-effective fabrication [8, 9]. Switching GDC0068 uniformity is one of the important properties which require practical realization of cross-point devices with large array size. So it is necessary to investigate the factors affecting switching uniformity. Various binary transition metal oxides such as HfO x [5, 6, 10–12], TiO x [13, 14], TaO x [2, 7, 15–18], AlO x [19–21], ZrO x [22–24], WO x [25], etc. as a switching material are reported for RRAM application.

Among them, recently, TaO x has attracted much attention [26] owing to its superior material and switching properties such as having ID-8 two stable phases [15], high thermal stability [18], small difference between the free energies of low and high resistance states [26], CMOS compatibility, long endurance [2], and high switching speed [7]. So far,a cross-point resistive switching memory device in an Ir/TaO x /W structure has not yet been reported. In this study, self-compliance-limited and low-voltage-operated resistive switching behaviors with improved switching cycle uniformity in a simple resistive memory stack of Ir/TaO x /W in cross-point architecture are reported. The physical properties of switching stack and bottom

electrode morphology have been observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analyses. The improvement is due to the defective switching layer formation as well as the electric field enhancement at the nanotips observed in the bottom electrode surface which results in controlled and uniform filament formation/rupture. The self-compliance property shows the built-in capability of the device to minimize the current overshoot during switching in one resistance (1R) configuration. The device has shown an alternating current (ac) endurance of >105 cycles and a data retention of >104 s. Methods A cross-point resistive memory stack in an Ir/TaO x /W structure have been fabricated on SiO2 (200 nm)/Si substrate. The fabrication steps are schematically depicted in Figure  1.