More systematic exploration and collection of pine germplasm was

More systematic exploration and collection of pine germplasm was done in Central America and Mexico between the late 1950s and the early 1970s, focusing on Pinuscaribaea, Pinusmaximinoi, Pinusoocarpa, Pinusgreggii, Pinustecunumanii and P. patula.

Subsequently, P. caribaea and P. oocarpa, for example, have been introduced to 79 and 34 countries, respectively ( Table 1). The past germplasm GDC-0199 price transfer patterns of tropical hardwoods are more diverse when compared to the above-discussed categories of species. Some tropical hardwoods were introduced for production purposes outside their natural ranges several hundred years ago, long before systematic R&D efforts started. More recently, however, germplasm of several tropical hardwoods was first transferred for R&D, and the results of this work then created interest and demand for further transferring germplasm for production purposes. Tectona grandis is a well-known example of the first category of tropical hardwoods. The large-scale transfer of its germplasm from Asia to other continents started more than one hundred years ago. Today, the species is estimated to be planted in a total

of 65 countries outside of its native range ( Table 1). Transferred germplasm of T. grandis originated from multiple sources and this contributed to the development of landraces in Africa and Central America. The origins of Afatinib in vitro these landraces are poorly understood, but historical records and genetic studies have shed some light on the possible routes of introduction, and the likely sources of germplasm. In Africa, it appears that T. grandis was first introduced to Tanzania at the end of the 19th century, and from there to other countries in East and (later) West Africa. The African landraces are reported to originate from multiple and rather diverse seed sources in India, Myanmar and possibly Java ( Wood, 1967). These landraces have a relatively high level of genetic diversity ( Kjaer and Siegismund, 1996). 4��8C No clear genetic relationship with T. grandis populations in South India has

been found ( Fofana et al., 2008), but Verhaegen et al. (2010) indicated that North India may have been an important seed source for many African introductions. Several other studies on the genetic diversity of T. grandis (e.g., Kertadikara and Prat, 1995, Shrestha et al., 2005 and Sreekanth et al., 2012) have also increased our understanding of the African landraces, but they have not been able to reveal their exact origins. In Central America, the first introductions of T. grandis occurred in Trinidad, where the seed probably originated from Myanmar and India ( Keogh, 1980). In the early 20th century, T. grandis was also planted in Panama using a small seed lot presumed to originate from India ( Keogh, 1980).

Fetal sex was also confirmed by visualization of the external gen

Fetal sex was also confirmed by visualization of the external genitalia after the delivery. The first commercial kit used for Y-STR amplification was the Powerplex Y23 System kit (Promega). Its reaction was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions in a GeneAmp 9700 PCR System (Life Technologies), except by the use of 60 PCR cycles. The second commercial kit used for Y-STR amplification was the AmpFlST Yfiler PCR amplification kit (Life Technologies). Its reaction was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions in a GeneAmp 9700 PCR System (Life Technologies), except by the use of 60 PCR cycles. The third (Mini-1) and fourth (Mini-2) multiplex reactions used for Y-STR amplification were previously

described by Asamura et al. [19], they included only mini Y-STR. The mini-1 Y-STR multiplex reaction find more (4-plex) consisted of 1.0 μL of primer Baf-A1 mix (see below), 12.5 μL Maxima Probe qPCR master mix (Fermentas) and 10 μL of extracted DNA in a 25 μL volume adjusted with DNase/RNase-free water (Fermentas). The primer concentration were as follow: DYS522 (6FAM) 0.5 μM, DYS508 (VIC) 0.6 μM, DYS632 (NED) 0.6 μM, DYS556 (PET) 1.4 μM. The PCR cycling conditions were: preincubation for 10 min

at 95 °C, 50 cycles of 15 s at 95 °C, 30 s at 60 °C and a final extension of 20 min at 60 °C. The Mini-2 Y-STR multiplex reaction (3-plex) was identical to the mini-1, except the primer mix composition DYS570 (6FAM) 0.5 μM, DYS576 (VIC) 0.5 μM, DYS540 (PET) 1.4 μM and the PCR cycling condition (preincubation for 10 min at 95 °C, 50 cycles

of 15 s at 95 °C, 30 s at 55 °C and a final extension of 20 min) at 60 °C). TC-3000 thermocycler (Techne) was used to perform both reactions. The primers for Mini-1 and Mini-2 loci were synthesized by life technologies. The Powerplex Y23 and mini-1/-2 systems were used to genotype the father’s reference sample. The reactions were performed as described above, except the number of PCR cycles that were reduced to 30 in all instances. Moreover, a total of 0.5–1.0 ng of DNA (contained in a 1.2 mm FTA punch) was used per PCR reactions. When necessary, the AmpFlSTR NGM PCR amplification kit was used to perform the kinship analysis and the reactions were performed according Tau-protein kinase manufacturer’s instructions. The PCR products were separated and detected with a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. For Yfiler, NGM and mini-1/-2 reactions, 1 μL of the amplified sample was added to 8.5 μL Hi-Di Formamide and 0.5 μL of GeneScan 600 LIZ. The electrophoresis condition was 15 s injection time, 1.2 kV injection voltage, 15 kV run voltage, 60 °C, 20 min run time, Dye Set G5 (6FAM, VIC, NED, PET and LIZ). For Powerplex Y23 reaction, 1 μL of the amplified sample was added to 10 μL Hi-Di Formamide and 1 μL of CC5 ILS Y23 (Promega). The electrophoresis condition was identical as described for Yfiler, except for the Dye Set G5 (FL, JOE, TMR-ET, CXR-ET and CC5 from Promega).

These concepts are essential to understanding why anthropogenic s

These concepts are essential to understanding why anthropogenic sediment is

selleck compound located where it is, how it behaved over the Anthropocene, and how it may behave in the future. The concept of inheriting a legacy from the past is pervasive in the environmental science literature, and LS is a logical outgrowth of that perspective. Over the first decade of the new millennium, the term, legacy sediment (LS) began to be used with increasing frequency in a variety of contexts. A partial Internet sample of published scientific papers or reports that contain the phrase ‘legacy sediment’ indicates that use of the term has proliferated, especially in the eastern USA, and across a range of disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, ecology, environmental toxicology, and planning ( Table 1). The earliest occurrence of the term was in 2004 and was concerned with the effects of copper contamination from legacy sediment on water quality ( Novotny, 2004). By 2007, LS had appeared in several studies of historical alluvium in the eastern USA. The use of LS to describe historical floodplain alluvium increased greatly with

the findings of legacy mill-pond surveys in Pennsylvania, USA ( Walter and Afatinib mouse Merritts, 2008 and Merritts et al., 2011). Although these two publications do not use the phrase, it was used by the authors and others as early as 2005 in abstracts and field trip logs in association with sediment trapped in legacy mill ponds. The use

of ‘legacy sediment’ in publications grew at about the same time as the use of ‘legacy contaminants’ and ‘legacy pollution.’ An Internet search of publications with the phrases “legacy contam*” and “legacy pollut*” in Wiley Online and Science Direct indicate a much larger number of uses of those terms than LS, but a similar—perhaps slightly earlier—timing of rapid growth ( Fig. 1). The contexts in which LS is used in publications vary widely from sources of legacy contaminations in toxicological studies (Bay et al., 2012), to sediment budgets (Gellis et al., 2009), Buspirone HCl to fluvial geomorphic and ecological processes (Hupp et al., 2009). This paper examines questions of geographic location, age, stratigraphic nomenclature, and genetic processes, in an attempt to clarify the concept of LS and avoid vague, obscure, or conflicting uses of the term. Ultimately, a definition of LS is suggested with broad applicability to sedimentary bodies generated by anthropogenic depositional episodes. Much usage of the term LS has gone without an explicit definition and relies on preconceived understandings or implications that may vary between disciplines. The primary implied meanings apparently are the historical age or the anthropogenic origin of the sediment. One consideration in defining LS is to examine the etymology of legacy.

0 earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that occurred on 11 March

0 earthquake and the subsequent tsunami that occurred on 11 March 2011 (Simons et al., 2011), the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)

underwent a series of serious damages (Burns et al., 2012). After failure of the cooling systems, several hydrogen explosions affected three of the six nuclear reactors of the power plant on March 12, 14 and 15, and affected a fourth reactor which had already been stopped (Achim et al., 2012). Significant quantities of radionuclides were released into the environment between 12 and 31 March (Morino et al., 2013). Radioactive substance quantities released by the FDNPP accident were estimated to reach 11–40% (190–700 PBq) of the Gefitinib molecular weight total amount of 131I and 14–62% (12–53.1 PBq) of the total 137Cs emitted by Chernobyl accident (Chino et al., 2011, Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan, 2011, IRSN, 2012, Stohl et al., 2012 and Winiarek et al., 2012). Despite the bulk of radionuclides (∼80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean (Buesseler et al., 2011 and Masson et al., 2011), significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides FG-4592 occurred predominantly in Fukushima Prefecture on 15–16 March, leading to a strong contamination of soils (Yasunari et al., 2011 and Kinoshita et al., 2011). In particular, 6.4 PBq of 137Cs (∼20% of the total emissions) were modelled to have deposited on Japanese soils (Stohl et al.,

2012) over a distance of 70 km to the northwest of FDNPP (Fig. 1a). Soils characterized by a 137Cs contamination exceeding 100 kBq m−2 cover ca. 3000 km2

(MEXT, 2011). When reaching such Succinyl-CoA high levels, radioactive contamination constitutes a real threat for the local populations. Resulting radiations lead to an external exposure threat that depends on the spatial distribution of radionuclides and the time of exposition (Endo et al., 2012 and Garnier-Laplace et al., 2011). This threat, associated with the possibility of transfer of contamination to plants, animals and direct ingestion of contaminated particles, will affect human activities such as agriculture, forest exploitation and fishing for long periods of time, depending on the half-life of the radionuclides (e.g., 2 yrs for 134Cs; 30 yrs for 137Cs). Those latter substances are strongly sorbed by soil particles (and especially by their clay, silt and organic matter fractions) and may therefore be delivered to rivers by runoff and erosion processes triggered on hillslopes (Motha et al., 2002, Tamura, 1964 and Whitehead, 1978). This sediment may then further convey contaminants in rivers, and its transfer can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination across larger areas over time (Rogowski and Tamura, 1965 and Simpson et al., 1976). To our knowledge, those transfers following the FDNPP releases have only been investigated at the scale of individual fields (e.g. Koarashi et al., 2012) or in very small catchments of northeastern Japan (Ueda et al., 2013).

This is another strategy of VISA PG now works as a shield for va

This is another strategy of VISA. PG now works as a shield for vancomycin penetration, like the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Evidence is accumulating for the view that vancomycin resistance in VISA is caused by altered cell wall structure and metabolism. Since S. aureus cell wall synthesis is regulated by multiple regulator genes, it is reasonable that hVISA/VISA clinical strains carry various mutations in the regulator genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis [12].

Whole-genome sequencing and microarray analysis of Mu50 identified the vraSR two-component regulatory system (TCRS) whose transcriptional LEE011 ic50 upregulation is responsible for the raised vancomycin resistance of

Mu50 [18], [19] and [20]. In Mu50 (and also in Mu3), the sensor kinase gene vraS was constitutively activated by the incorporated mutation vraS(I5N). The mutated VraS in turn activated the cognate response regulator VraR and raised expression of the genes encoding several key enzymes of cell wall biogenesis such as murZ, pbp2, sgtB, tarA, fmtA and lcpC (SA2103) [20] and [21]. Experimental introduction of the mutation vraS(I5N) as well as of another experimentally obtained mutation vraS(S329L) into VSSA strain N315ΔIP conferred an hVISA phenotype on the strain [21]. The mutation vraS(I5N) is carried by many VISA strains isolated from various districts of Japan [2], [22], [23] and [24], indicating clonal spread of Mu3 throughout Japan. Recently, vraSR is regarded as part of a four-membered operon, vraU–vraT (or yvqF)–vraS–vraR. vraT is reported to be essential for vraSR function as the upregulator of cell wall synthesis [25] and [26]. The vraT(Y220C) 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mutation was shown to activate vraSR and raise both methicillin and vancomycin resistance [26]. Another mutation [vraT(T125I)]

is also shown to raise vancomycin and imipenem MICs [23]. This cross-resistance between vancomycin and β-lactams through activation of the vraSR TCRS has a historical implication in the emergence of VISA from MRSA in Japan [22]. Acquisition of homogeneously high β-lactam resistance by hetero-MRSA (see below) appears to have prepared the way for Japanese MRSA to conquer vancomycin as well. The vraUTSR operon is frequently mutated in clinical VISA and hVISA strains ( Table 1). Of 33 VISA strains, 14 (42.4%) possessed mutations in either one of the three genes vraT, vraS and vraR. In Japan, however, the vraTSR mutation frequency among 86 S. aureus clinical strains with reduced teicoplanin susceptibility (teicoplanin MIC ≥ 2 mg/L; equivalent to hVISA or ‘pre-hVISA’ described below) was as high as 67.4% (58 strains) [23]. We found that the development of hVISA clinical strains among MRSA strains in Japan occurred before the introduction of vancomycin into clinical use [22].

It sel

It DAPT clinical trial has been confirmed that children born prematurely constitute an at‐risk group, and may benefit from effective educational or therapeutic intervention programs. It is noteworthy that there is better knowledge about the evolution of preterm newborns who have evident neurological signs and receive early diagnosis; however, children with mild sequelae, which will manifest later,

are not yet provided proper attention, especially in the public healthcare system. Objective data documenting functional sequelae in these children may encourage the development of preventive programs for developmental stimulation, which are still scarce in Brazil. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Breast milk is the ideal food to newborns born at term and preterm, facilitating cognitive development.1 and 2 At a gestational age of less than 34 weeks, newborns are still unable to suck, swallow, and breathe

properly and coordinately. In such cases, the oral diet is administered through a feeding tube, which implies collecting, handling, storing, and administering human milk.3 These procedures may compromise the nutritional quality of breast milk, depriving preterm infants from a significant portion of calories from fat.4, 5 and 6 Vieira et al.7 observed a significant reduction in fat between natural donated breast milk (raw) milk and the milk that is offered. Among the processes related to supply of human milk studied, the greatest reduction occurred after the simulation of milk supply by continuous infusion. The process of freezing and thawing can change the physicochemical properties of breast milk and, therefore, the losses during continuous infusion Glutamate dehydrogenase could be affected by these changes. The freezing and thawing processes favor the formation of micelles, which can adhere to plastic, facilitating the loss of fat.4 and 7 Therefore, it became necessary to clarify whether this increased loss with continuous infusion might be caused by the thawing process or whether the

administration route (gavage or continuous infusion) would be the main responsible factor. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the following macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk, frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. An experimental study was conducted with human milk samples from volunteer donors of the Human Milk Bank of the Instituto Nacional em Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. All donors were mothers of newborns born at term, and the milk was collected in the morning. The milk was extracted by manual expression or electric pump and stored in glass vials.

9 All newborns (preterm and full-term) received enteral supplemen

9 All newborns (preterm and full-term) received enteral supplementation of vitamin D at a dose of 400 IU/day, which was maintained during the first two years of age. After discharge, the children were assessed monthly. During the study period, all infants were fed exclusively human milk. Children with indication for additive use received

a combined solution of calcium gluconate and dibasic calcium selleck kinase inhibitor phosphate between breast-feedings, which was maintained for the first six months of age (age corrected for the PTNs and chronological age for the FTNs), and complementary feeding was not introduced. All newborns were weighed on an electronic scale (Baby Model; Filizola – São Paulo, Brazil) and height was obtained using an anthropometric ruler graduated in centimeters. In the group of PTNs, serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed

at the ages of 40 post-conceptual weeks and 6 months of corrected postnatal age. Furthermore, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus was determined in 6-hour urine samples between the third and fourth weeks of life (uncorrected age). In the group of FTNs, measurements of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were performed only at 40 weeks post-conceptual age, as blood collection at 6 months was not approved by the Ethics Committee. Bone densitometry was performed at Volasertib in vivo the Laboratory for Bone Metabolism of Rheumatology, Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The following parameters Astemizole were evaluated: BMC, bone mineral density (BMD), and lean mass in three periods: 40 weeks of corrected post-conceptual age, as well as 3 and 6 months of corrected postnatal

age. BMC reflects the total amount of material (mineral bone) measured by absorptiometry, in grams; BMD is defined as bone mineral content divided by bone area in grams per square centimeter, and lean body mass is fat-free mass. A dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus was used (DXA: Discovery A; Hologic Inc. – Bedford, MA, USA) with the Infant Whole-Body scanning mode (software version 12.3.3; Hologic Inc.). The software used is considered superior to pediatric software for the analysis of bone mineral, accurately validated for both PTNs and FTNs.17 In addition, the fan-beam technique, used in the study, makes the Discovery A scanner more accurate when compared to the prior pencil-beam technique.18 The study by Blake et al. demonstrated that the Discovery A scanner has additional advantages, as it requires a lower radiation dose when compared to the previously used Discovery W (Hologic Inc. – Bedford, MA, USA) and QDR 4500 Hologic Inc. – Bedford, MA, USA) models. For a newborn, the effective radiation dose is 8.9 mSv for the whole body, and it is 7.5 mSv for a child aged 1 year.19 Examinations were performed without sedation after breastfeeding. The coefficient of variation for whole body BMD was 0.004 g/cm2 (0.4%), and the minimum significant difference for newborns evaluated in the study was 1.


The reaction was conducted at 42 °C for 60 min followed by an inactivation step at 70 °C for 15 min. PCR amplification of 1 μl cDNA was performed in a 25 μl reaction volume containing 1X Standard Taq buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 9), containing 50 mM KCl, 1% Triton X-100 and 2.5 mM MgCl2) 5 U Taq polymerase and 0.25 mM dNTPs. Based on the previous publications, degenerate primers FIPE F1 (5′-ATG CGC CTC GTG GTC TG-3′), FIPE R1 (5′-TCC TTT TAC

TAA ITG ICA ICA-3′) were used for the partial amplification of F. indicus penaeidin [23]. Based on the partial sequence obtained, the complete sequence of Fein-Penaeidin cDNA was generated using RACE PCR. PCR reactions were performed as follows: 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min, annealing at 50 °C for 1 min, and elongation at 72 °C for 2 min, followed by a 10 min extension at 72 °C. The PCR product was analyzed by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gels in TBE buffer, stained with 10 mg/ml ethidium bromide and visualized under UV transilluminator. Further amplified cDNA fragments were cloned into the pGEM-T Easy vector as per the instructions of the manufacturer (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA). Recombinant bacteria were identified by

blue/white screening and confirmed by PCR. Plasmids containing the insert were purified (HiYieldTM Gel/PCR DNA Mini Kit-Real genomicsTM, GSI-IX chemical structure Taiwan) and used as a template for DNA sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing

Isotretinoin was performed using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method on an ABI DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Forster, CA, USA). The sequence homology and the translated amino acid sequences comparisons were carried out using the BLAST program at the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ( Gene translation and prediction of deduced protein were performed with EXPASY ( Elementary domain analysis was carried out on “InterPro Domain Scan” [24]. The signal peptide was predicted by the Signal P server ( The Multiple sequence alignments were performed on amino acid sequences of known penaeidins or penaeidins-like peptides from shrimps with MAFFT version 6 ( and the same were used to construct the phylogenetic tree by the Neighbor-Joining method and the UPGMA method with MEGA 3.0 ( Bootstraps (1000) were performed for the UPGMA and NJ trees to confirm the repeatability of the results.

[25] presented an approach using a groove, plate, and strut, whic

[25] presented an approach using a groove, plate, and strut, which involved minimal preparation of the posterior abutment to receive a RBFPD using a base metal alloy. Botelho et al. [26] advised that the major retainer should have a wrap-around configuration on at least three surfaces of the abutment or have strategically placed opposing axial grooves or slots for long-span prostheses that replace two or more missing teeth. Another report [27] described a methodical preparation for posterior partial veneered restorations that provides sound posterior occlusal function and isolates the occlusal contact area in the enamel to maintain

the vertical dimension of occlusion. It is especially effective when a prosthesis has not been seated this website very long to replace the missing teeth, MEK activation and the intact mesial and distal teeth incline toward the missing space (Figure 9 and Figure 10). The overcasting technique was originally a technique designed to avoid removal of restorations, such as fractured metal ceramic fixed partial dentures [28], [29] and [30] or adjacent FPDs [31]. The technique remarkably developed through the use of adhesive resin cement with metal conditioners [32] and [33]. An overcasting restoration may provide faster treatment, fewer appointments, less discomfort, simpler laboratory procedures, and lower cost compared to replacing the restoration. Fig. 11 shows a preparation with two retentive

pinholes for an overcasting in response to an esthetic request from the patient. buy Baf-A1 Although the typical design of resin-bonded overcastings has not yet been established, it is generally easy to add mechanical structures such as grooves and pinholes in overcastings compared to intact

teeth. In this situation, the overcasting was cast with type III gold alloy with highly filled composite (Fig. 12). The facial surfaces of the metal premolar restorations were replaced with an overcasting with indirect composite using an adhesive luting agent (Super-Bond C&B Ivory, Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Moriyama, Japan) which resulted in a good appearance (Fig. 13). Evaluation of the current status indicates that the design of posterior resin-bonded prostheses has almost become D-shaped. This design is almost complete with no clinically significant problems and will be used for the foreseeable future. On the other hand, there is no typical standard yet for the design of anterior resin-bonded prostheses. The available surfaces to be bonded are limited from the esthetic viewpoint to the lingual surface and a portion of the proximal surface in the anterior region. Hence, it is difficult to use a wrap-around design in this region. Consequently, there is a limitation to adding mechanical retention obtained by design although the improvement of the bond strength of the adhesive resin material is definitely needed, particularly in this region.

As a result, in young adult patients receiving bronchodilator the

As a result, in young adult patients receiving bronchodilator therapy with diagnosis of bronchitis, methemoglobinemia should be considered as the reason of cyanosis and hypoxemia. None declared. “
“There are a number of etiologies associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD).1 ILD has been recognized as an early presentation of polymyositis-dermatomyositis (PM-DM) with frequency as high as 65%.2 ILD in PM-DM is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality.2 We report a case of a patient with dyspnea, cough, and intermittent fever in the setting of positive anti-Jo-1 antibodies, who was subsequently documented to have ILD

on lung biopsy. A 52 year-old man who was previously healthy and a non-smoker presented

to an outside facility with cough, progressive dyspnea this website and fevers. He was empirically treated for suspected community acquired pneumonia with intravenous Ceftriaxone and Levofloxacin. A diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchioalveolar lavage sampling was unrevealing. Because of poor therapeutic response, progression of shortness of breath, and hypoxemia, the patient was transferred to our institution for further evaluation and management. The patient’s social history included a recent business trip to Bangkok and Tokyo, but he denied any specific environmental or infectious exposures. He denied weight loss, previous pulmonary symptoms, muscle weakness, joints swelling and rashes. Initial vital signs revealed that he was Bay 11-7085 febrile to 38.8 °C, blood pressure of 170/72 mmHg, Natural Product Library datasheet and hypoxic with oxygen saturation in the low 80 s on 3 liters per minute (LPM) of oxygen by nasal cannula. Physical examination was remarkable for bilateral inspiratory crackles and otherwise unrevealing.

Laboratory evaluation was remarkable for leukocytosis of 9.3 × 103/mm3 with an elevated fraction of eosinophils 0.85% (normal 0.05–0.5%), an elevated sedimentation rate of 43 mm/1 h (normal 0–22 mm/1 h), an elevated C-reactive protein of 21.8 mg/L (normal ≤ 8.0 mg/L) and creatinine kinase of 740 U/L (normal 52–336). Urine analysis was normal; no myoglobin was seen. Spirometry was consistent with a restrictive pattern (FVC 38% predicted). Repeat chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a progressive and bilateral scattered consolidative appearing infiltrates (Fig. 1). Given the recent travel and eosinophilia, an extensive infectious disease evaluation was performed, which was unrevealing. A subsequent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy showed patchy organizing pneumonia and diffuse mixed inflammatory infiltrates involving interstitial septa and alveolar spaces (Fig. 2). Subsequent serologies revealed slight increase in antinuclear antibody to 2.2 (normal < 1.0 units) with increased anti-Jo-1 antibody of 2.2 (normal < 1.0 units); other extractable nuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were not detected.