High levels of σS impair the growth of E coli on poor carbon sou

High levels of σS impair the growth of E. coli on poor carbon sources or under nutrient limitation [28]. Stress resistance is not constant amongst all E. coli strains [28–30] also indicating possible variation in gene expression relating to RpoS and/or ppGpp. We demonstrate here that strain variation in ppGpp is one of several factors that contribute

to the difference in the level of σS across the species E. coli and discuss the polymorphisms at the core of bacterial regulation. Results The goal of this study is three-fold: to provide evidence that rpoS polymorphism and variation in σS levels are widespread in the species E. coli; to show that the genes that control ppGpp synthesis and degradation are also subject to variation and finally to demonstrate that the different levels of RpoS are at least partially dependent on variability of endogenous ppGpp. Strain BMN 673 in vivo variation in RpoS levels in the species E. coli To test the extent of variation in RpoS levels, we analysed 31 strains from the ECOR collection of E. coli isolates from various locations and environments [31]. The 72 ECOR strains are divided into five phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2,

D and E). Nine of the strains tested here belonged to group this website A, 7 to group B1, 10 to group B2 and 5 to group D. The K-12 strain MG1655 was used as a control reference. As shown in Figure 1, the cellular content of RpoS was highly variable in standardised overnight cultures. Nine isolates had no detectable RpoS, another five had

RpoS level 3 to 7-fold above that of the laboratory K-12 strain MG1655. The remainder of strains had levels within a 2-fold range around MG1655. The absence of RpoS from the nine strains was confirmed by screening for σS-related phenotypes (glycogen accumulation [32] and catalase activity [33]; results not shown). Figure 1 Quantitation of RpoS. Overnight bacterial cultures grown in LB were harvested, lysed and their total protein content resolved by SDS-PAGE. Proteins were immunoblotted with anti-RpoS monoclonal antibodies. The bands were scanned and quantified. Densitometric measurements were normalised against ECOR 56 PAK6 to which was assigned 100 units. Relative values represent the mean ± S.E. of at least three independent experiments. rpoS sequences in ECOR strains Variation in the rpoS locus was already indicated by the observation that PCR amplification of the rpoS region resulted in fragments of three different sizes, as shown in Table 1. These differences were consistent with the genomic variation in the rpoS-mutS region in the species E. coli [34]. The size of fragments and sequence matches correspond to previously described rpoS regions, with the 1.3 Kb fragment like that in E. coli K-12, and the 4.2 Kb and 3.4 Kb products similar to those found in [35] and [36] respectively.

He then presented 2 weeks post injury with acute hemiplegia and w

He then presented 2 weeks post injury with acute hemiplegia and was diagnosed with carotid dissection and underwent surgical intervention but developed and large left sided hemispheric infarct and expired 5 days post admission. This case series included trauma patients and highlighted the delayed nature of presentations of BCVI with new neurological deficits ascribed to the injuries occurring as late as 6 months post injury Selleckchem RG-7388 [4]. Similarly, a case series from Mayo Clinic of 18 patients 3 of which were sports related injuries, also noted a delay in presentation from 30 minutes to 10 years post injury [5]. Within the pediatric literature there are individual case reports including a report of 3 American

football players 17, 15, and click here 14 years of age who sustained cerebellar infarct, left pontine stroke, and left middle cerebral infarct respectively [6]. These players all

had neurological findings and also presence of one or some of the following prothrombotic mutations: methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T and A1298C, PAI 1-4G, prothrombin 20210. Additionally, there is a report of a 15 year old who developed symptoms during a game of American football without obvious trauma and presented to hospital with a progressive neurological deficit ascribed to a left ICA dissection with hemispheric infarct and an ultimately fatal course 4 days following admission [7]. It is unclear from the case report whether or not he was playing. A review of 18 cases of sport-related BCVI (not including Rugby) were related to a wide range of activities including cycling, football, French boxing, Hockey, In-line Skating, Scuba diving, Skiing, Softball, Taekwondo, Weight lifting, and Wintersports [8]. Pathophysiology was presumed to be due to a crush injury to the carotid with disruption to the intima in 62% of

patients with a subintimal dissection with internal carotid Clomifene dissections carrying a more severe course and worse long term outcome. In a recent broad overview of BCVI etiology is thought to be stretch of the common carotid artery over C3-5 during extreme neck extension [9]. The strokes that arise from these injuries are thought to be either embolic from dislodged clot from a focal site of intimal disruption or from dissection causing vessel occlusion or sufficient narrowing to result in cerebral infarct. Anatomic variation in the Circle of Willis, incomplete in 80% of the population, contributes to the severity of carotid occlusion by functionally making the internal carotid artery an end artery rather a collateralized artery. This fact is further corroborated from recent vascular surgery literature regarding 2 or more obstructions or agenesis within the Circle of Willis with inability to tolerate carotid cross clamping [10]. Regarding our case the patient received a traumatic tackle while playing at scrum-half position (back) in a training scenario.

In the current study, we demonstrated

In the current study, we demonstrated 5-Fluoracil mw that TGF-β1 was able to induce Smad 2 and 3 phosphorylation in HPMCs. These data indicated that rapid and sustained phosphorylation

of Smad 2 and Smad 3 may participate in TGF-β1-induced peritoneal fibrosis. Many studies have investigated the impact of the cancer-stroma interaction in different human cancers and shown the importance of tumor cell interaction with extracellular matrix to establish a favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis [18, 29, 30]. Our data from the current study confirmed such an interaction, in that TGF-β1 secreted by gastric cancer cells was able to increase production of fibronectin and collagen III in HPMCs and in turn induce peritoneal fibrosis. TGF-β1-treated mesothelial cells affected gastric cancer cell adhesion. We also determined whether these effects are ECM-dependent by using RGD to achieve selective and specific knockdown of minimal sites of ECM cell binding Opaganib nmr domain. We found that RGD treatment significantly decreased the adhesive ability of cancer cells to mesothelial cells. These

data suggest that peritoneal fibrosis may stimulate the adherence capability of gastric cancer cells to the peritoneum, which is consistent with previous reports showing that TGF-β1 enhanced tumor-mesothelial cell adhesion [31, 32]. We have also noticed that the concentration of TGF-β1 in the peritoneal wash fluid was lower than that to use in vitro to treat mesothelial cells. It may the natural differences between in vivo and in vitro experiments and the latter is acute and artificial. In addition, some other factors secreted by gastric cancer cells may also contribute to the effect. In conclusions, our current study characterized the interaction of gastric cancer with peritoneal fibrosis and determined that TGF-β1 plays a key role in induction of peritoneal fibrosis, which in turn affected gastric cancer adhesion and metastasis. Furthermore, the pretreatment of cancer DCLK1 cells with RGD significantly inhibited the adhesion of carcinoma cells. Taken together, our current

data demonstrated that the presence of peritoneal fibrosis appears to provide a favorable environment for dissemination of gastric cancer. Acknowledgements This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China(No.30873043, 30901419 and 81071956). We thank Prof. Feng Li for technical assistance and MD. Jiamei Wu, Dr. Chunyu Wang, Dr. Qiang Ke, Dr. Jian Zhang and Dr. Shuo Wang for precious advice. References 1. Paul L, Emad M: Gastric cancer. Br Med Bull 2008, 85: 87–100.CrossRef 2. Kamangar F, Dores GM, Anderson WF: Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: Defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. J Clin Oncol 2006, 24: 2137–2150.PubMedCrossRef 3. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P: Global cancer statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005, 55: 74–108.PubMedCrossRef 4.

Our study revealed that the expression of the MTA1gene was remark

Our study revealed that the expression of the MTA1gene was remarkably decreased after the PDCD4 gene transfection.

In the migration and Matrigel invasion assay, we discovered that the MHCC-97H cells migrated to the lower surface were greatly decreased after PDCD4 gene transfection. A study on a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line NB4 demonstrated that Knockdown of PDCD4 by RNA interference (siRNA) leads to induction of c-myc, suggesting that c-myc maybe a potential down-stream target of PDCD4[7]. MTA1 is an integral subunit of nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex which contains both histone deacetylase and nucleosome remodeling activity. It has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic carcinomas. Recent studies on rat fibroblasts cells revealed that MTA1 is one of the essential first down-stream effectors of the c-myc oncoprotein. Activation of c-myc causes induction of the MTA1 expression [34]. In MHCC-97H cells stably Selleckchem CB-839 transfected with the PDCD4, activity of c-myc maybe inhibited and the gene expression of MTA1 is further blocked. Metastasis is a multistep process. Cell migration and invasion are essential for tumor progression and metastasis. Matrigel is a reconstituted

basal membrane with most components of extracellular membrane. Malignant cells have to degrade the surrounding ECM before spread [35]. Metastatic potential of MHCC-97H cells had been found to be correlated to the number of cells migrated in the migration and invasion assay [14]. In summary, we showed that the expression of PDCD4 was inversely correlated to the metastatic potentials of HCC cells. PDCD4

see more effectively blocked the proliferation rate, decreased the gene expression of metastasis associated protein1, and inhibited the migration and invasion activities of MHCC-97H cells. These results demonstrate that PDCD4 might be a novel suppressor to metastatic potential of HCC cells. By our knowledge, this was the first observation to investigate the effects of PDCD4 on metastatic potential of HCC cells. Further studies are required to confirm these findings in vivo. Acknowledgements We thank Chuanxi Wang at Key Laboratory of Biotech-Drugs Ministry of Health of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences for his excellent technical support and Zunchang Liu at Artificial Cells and Organs Research Center of McGill University Methane monooxygenase for his critical reading of the manuscript. References 1. Kirk GD, Bah E, Montesano R: Molecular epidemiology of human liver cancer: insights into etiology, pathogenesis and prevention from The Gambia. West Africa. Carcinogenesis 2006, 27: 2070–2082.CrossRefPubMed 2. Lai EC, Lau WY: Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review. Arch Surg 2006, 141: 191–198.CrossRefPubMed 3. Li X, Pan Y, Fan R, Jin H, Han S, Liu J, Wu K, Fan D: Adenovirus-delivered CIAPIN1 small interfering RNA inhibits HCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Carcinogenesis 2008, 29: 1587–1593.

Following centrifugation for 20 min at 26,000×g, protein in the e

Following centrifugation for 20 min at 26,000×g, protein in the extract was precipitated with 80 % ammonium sulphate, collected by centrifugation and suspended in buffer A. Following desalting on a Sephadex G-25 column, the dPGM-ST was purified by passage over a 20 ml column of Strep-tactin Sepharose (IBA GmbH, Goettingen, Germany) that had been equilibrated in buffer A. After washing with 10 column volumes of buffer A, dPGM-ST was eluted with 5 mM desthiobiotin in buffer A. The purified dPGM-ST was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and desalted on a Sephadex G-25 column, equilibrated

with 60 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.9. Fractions containing protein were pooled and stored at −80 °C. For the initial development of the assay, PEP carboxylase was purified from maize leaves by a procedure described for Rubisco (Carmo-Silva et al. 2011). The protein peak corresponding to PEP carboxylase eluted from the ion-exchange column BGB324 research buy just prior to that of Rubisco. A commercially available PEP carboxylase (Sigma–Aldrich #C1744) from a microbial source was also used in the assay. Measurement of RCA activity using purified proteins RCA activity was measured as the ability to restore

activity to the inactive PF-562271 nmr Rubisco-RuBP (ER) complex (Salvucci et al. 1985). Rubisco activity was measured in reactions containing 100 mM Tricine-NaOH, pH 8, 10 mM MgCl2, 10 mM NaHCO3, 5 mM DTT, 5 % (w/v) PEG-3350, 1 mM NADH, 0.48 U enolase, 0.75 U dPGM-ST, 0.2 mM 2,3-bisPGA, 2 mM RuBP, 10 mM glucose-6-phosphate, 0.75 U PEP carboxylase, 1 U malic dehydrogenase, 5 mM ATP plus ADP at various ratios, and recombinant RCA and Rubisco at the concentrations indicated in the text.

For assays using the commercially available microbial PEP carboxylase, the microbial PEP carboxylase (1 U) was substituted for the maize enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate and PEG-3350 were Dichloromethane dehalogenase omitted from the mix. To avoid under-estimating activity and to eliminate long lags in product conversion, the specific activities of the linking enzymes were more than tenfold higher than the maximum activity of Rubisco at the highest concentration used. When tested using sub-saturating and saturating concentrations of 3-PGA, the activities of the linking enzymes catalysed NADH oxidation at rates that were several-fold higher than the maximum rate of Rubisco activity. Rubisco assays were conducted at 30 °C in 96 well plates in a total volume of 0.1 or 0.2 mL. RCA was added to reactions containing all of the components except Rubisco. After 30 s, reactions were initiated with Rubisco in the ER form and the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, linked to the stoichiometric production of 3-PGA, was measured continuously using a Synergy HT (Bio-Tek, Denkendorf, Germany) plate reader. To determine the activity of the fully carbamylated ECM form, reactions were first incubated for 3 min without RuBP.

PLoS One 2012,7(3):e33080 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 15 Rigano

PLoS One 2012,7(3):e33080.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 15. Rigano LA, Siciliano F, Enrique R, Sendin L, Filippone P, Torres PS, Questa J, Dow JM, Castagnaro AP, Vojnov AA, Marano MR: Biofilm formation, epiphytic fitness, and canker development in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri . Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2007,20(10):1222–1230.PubMedCrossRef 16. Gottig N, Garavaglia BS, Garofalo CG, Orellano EG, Ottado J: click here A filamentous hemagglutinin-like protein of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri , the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, is involved in bacterial virulence. PLoS One 2009,4(2):e4358.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 17. Li J, Wang N: The wxacO gene of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri encodes a protein with

a role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, stress tolerance and virulence. Mol Plant Pathol 2011,12(4):381–396.PubMedCrossRef 18. Li J, Wang N: Foliar application of biofilm formation inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri . Phytopathology 2014,104(2):134–142.PubMedCrossRef 19. Dunger G, Arabolaza AL, Gottig N, Orellano EG, Ottado J: Participation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri hrp cluster in citrus canker and non-host plant responses. Plant Pathol 2005,54(6):781–788.CrossRef 20. Kovach ME, Elzer PH, check details Hill DS, Robertson GT, Farris MA, Roop RM 2nd, Peterson KM:

Four new derivatives of the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1MCS, carrying different antibiotic-resistance cassettes. Gene 1995,166(1):175–176.PubMedCrossRef 21. Pereira AL, Carazzolle MF, Abe VY, de Oliveira ML, Domingues MN, Silva JC, Cernadas RA, Benedetti CE: Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response. BMC Genomics 2014,15(1):157.PubMedCrossRef 22. Hu Y, Zhang J, Jia H, Sosso D, Li T, Frommer WB, Yang B, White

FF, Wang N, Jones JB: Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease. SPTLC1 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014,111(4):E521-E529.PubMedCrossRef 23. Hausner J, Hartmann N, Lorenz C, Buttner D: The periplasmic HrpB1 protein from Xanthomonas binds to peptidoglycan and to components of the type III secretion system. Appl Environ Microbiol 2013,79(20):6312–6324.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 24. Wengelnik K, van den Ackerveken G, Bonas U: HrpG, a key hrp regulatory protein of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is homologous to two-component response regulators. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 1996,9(8):704–712.PubMedCrossRef 25. Weber E, Ojanen-Reuhs T, Huguet E, Hause G, Romantschuk M, Korhonen TK, Bonas U, Koebnik R: The type III-dependent Hrp pilus is required for productive interaction of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria with pepper host plants. J Bacteriol 2005,187(7):2458–2468.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 26.

0 [24] These facts and findings suggest that some lactobacilli a

0 [24]. These facts and findings suggest that some lactobacilli are able to tolerate a very alkaline environment in some occasions for MAPK Inhibitor Library their survival. Nishitani et al. [7] speculated that tannase production might allow L. plantarum strains to accumulate high intracellular levels of Mn2+, which is otherwise chelated by tannins, compensating for the absence of superoxide dismutase in L. plantarum and providing resistance to oxygen toxicity under aerobic conditions. If this is actually the case, the alkaline tolerant tannases may be beneficial for their survival under alkaline conditions. It was reported that tannase activities were affected by

several chemicals [10, 25]. The activities of recombinant TanLpl, TanLpa, and TanLpe were significantly affected by neither EDTA, Mn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, PMSF, nor urea. Previously Curiel et al. [10] reported that the activity of TanLpl was greatly increased in the presence of Ca2+ and was significantly

inhibited in the presence of urea. Notably, they used E. coli as a host for the expression of a recombinant N-terminal His-tagged TanLpl while we used B. subtilis and C-terminal His-tagged recombinant. In order to clarify the inconsistency further characterization is required, but the effects of EDTA, Mn2+, and Mg2+ were in good agreement. TanLpl, TanLpa, and TanLpe were not affected in 1 mM EDTA, implying that the enzymes do not Roxadustat concentration depend on divalent metallic ions as co-factors. Only the exception was Fe2+, which was also shown to inhibit a tannase from Penicillium chrysogenum[26]. Previously [9]K m value of TanLpl for MG was found to be lower than that of commercially available tannase of A. orzae. In this study, K m and k cat values of TanLpl, TanLpa, and TanLpe were calculated not only for MG, but also for various catechin

galloyl esters. K m values of the enzymes on each these substrates were comparable; however, k cat/K m values of TanLpa for EGCg, ECg, Cg, and GCg were significantly higher than those of TanLpl and TanLpe. The results suggest that the small differences in the amino acid sequences of tannase can exert Mirabegron such a drastic effect. Interestingly, k cat/K m values for EGCg3″Me of TanLpl and TanLpa were much lower than those for other catechins (Table 2). EGCg3″Me is a derivative of EGCg, in which the methoxyl group is located at the galloyl group of EGCg. Ren et al. [19] showed that the hydrogen-bonding network which was observed between three hydroxyl groups of gallic acid and the side chains of Asp421, Lys343, and Glu357 of lactobacilli tannase is important in enzyme-substrate complex. Therefore, EGCg3″Me may not form a strong and stable complex with the enzymes. Tannins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and bind readily with proteins or heavy metals to form insoluble complexes, thereby presumably acting as a defense mechanism in plants against microbial attacks [7, 27].

Yang et al [39] used nanoparticles for IMS and showed better cap

Yang et al. [39] used nanoparticles for IMS and showed better capture and detection of

L. monocytogenes in milk with real-time PCR (9%) compared with plate counts (6%). This may be because qPCR detects DNA from nonviable or viable but non-culturable cells, which may not otherwise be detected by traditional plating methods [62, 63]. The fiber-optic sensor operates based on the principles of antibody-antigen interaction and is marketed by Research International. It is currently used for foodborne or biothreat agent detection [31]. The Adriamycin concentration antibody (MAb-2D12) used in this study on the optical waveguide made the assay highly specific for L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, with the detection limit of 3 × 102 CFU/ml, a significant improvement over previous reports. Geng et al. [46] used MAb-C11E9 to show cross-reaction with some L. innocua strains with LOD of 4.3 × 103 CFU/ml. Using a polyclonal anti-Listeria capture antibody and an InlA-specific aptamer as find more a reporter, Ohk et al. [48] reported specific detection of L. monocytogenes with a LOD of 103 CFU/mL. Conclusions

We developed highly specific anti-InlA MAb (2D12) against pathogenic Listeria: L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii and anti-p30 MAb (3F8) against all Listeria spp. including the two new species (L. marthii and L. rocourtiae). Anti-InlA antibody allowed specific detection of low levels (3 × 102 CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii when used on IMS and a fiber-optic sensor in the presence of other bacteria from buffer, soft cheese or hotdogs inoculated with low levels of cells (10–40 CFU/g) following enrichment. Methods Culture and growth conditions All bacterial cultures (Additional file 3: Table S1) were maintained on brain heart infusion (BHI; Acumedia, Lansing, MI) agar plates at 4°C with the exception of lactic acid bacteria, Ribonuclease T1 which were maintained on de Man Rogosa Sharpe agar (MRS; Becton Dickinson [BD], Sparks, MD).

To obtain fresh cultures, Listeria spp. were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB; BD) containing 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-YE) or Listeria enrichment broth (LEB; BD) at 37°C for 16–18 h. Non-Listeria organisms were grown in TSB-YE, and lactic acid bacteria were grown in MRS broth at 37°C for 16–18 h. Fraser Broth (FB) and modified Oxford agar (MOX) were purchased from BD. All bacteria were maintained in BHI broth with 20% glycerol at −80°C until further use. Cloning of inlA and immunogen preparation Specific primers (MWG-Biotech, Huntsville, AL) were designed to target the inlA gene (GenBank acc. no.: DQ132795) using Vector NTI 10.0 software (Invitrogen) in order to amplify the complete open reading frame (2331 bp) except for the signal peptide and a C-terminal portion.

Both the inquiline, C latiferreana, and its parasitoid,

Both the inquiline, C. latiferreana, and its parasitoid,

B. nucicola, were associated with galls that developed later in the season (Tables 2, 3). The majority of filbert moths emerged from the galls from July through early September of the first year of gall development, though some moths (and their parasitoids) diapaused for a year (Fig. 2). In order to emerge late-summer, see more the inquiline and its parasitoid would need to develop in the early-developing oak apple galls (Fig. 2). As the oak apple galls appear to have a curious bimodal pattern of development throughout the summer and fall (Fig. 2, Rosenthal and Koehler 1971b; Schick 2002), it is likely that the first cohort of galls is more often attacked by the inquiline and subsequently inhabited by B. nucicola, the parasitoid of the inquiline. But why do filbert moths emerge so early from their host galls? Filbert moths inhabit oak

apple galls and acorns on valley oak as well as other nuts and woody oak galls such as Bebiscus mirabilis on Oregon oak (Dohanian 1942b), and they overwinter as free-living, mature larvae after pushing themselves out of their larval host. The pattern of emergence of filbert moths from oak apple galls suggests that the moths may use the galls as an early season host, and thus maintain an additional generation per year. After emerging from galls in August, they likely oviposit in immature acorns, which are a more abundant resource in August than developing oak apple galls. Interestingly,

the parasitoid, Bassus nucicola, www.selleckchem.com/products/BKM-120.html has only been reared from filbert moth larvae inside oak apple galls (Dohanian 1942a); this observation suggests that oak apple galls are a common and important host of filbert moths. What do different attack rates of parasitoids on galls mean for the phenology of the galls? Galls that emerge early in the season accumulate higher abundances of inquilines, which can incur a fitness cost on the gall-inducer Org 27569 by cutting off the plant vasculature that leads to the gall inducer chambers. Conversely, galls that emerge later in the summer are more frequently parasitized by the eulophid parasitoid, B. gigas. Though this study cannot directly assess the selection pressures on the gall-inducer, as we do not know how many gall-inducers were present in the gall prior to parasitoid attack, other studies have found that attack by different predators or parasitoids result in stabilizing selection on aspects of gall morphology such as size (Weis et al. 1992). Interestingly, most parasitoids and inquilines had both a broader emergence period and a longer diapause time than the gall-inducer (Fig. 2). Many of the parasitoids in this system are known to attack other gall species than A. quercuscalifornicus. Inouye and Agrawal (2004) showed that T. californicus and B. gigas (described as Baryscapus sp.) attack the gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis, which forms stem galls on Q. lobata that are sympatric with A.

J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990, 14:137S-146S CrossRef 22 Rhoads JM

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