It is hoped that accumulating data of the development mechanisms

It is hoped that accumulating data of the development mechanisms underlying the expanded network formation in the brain will lead AZD7762 molecular weight to the development of therapeutic options for neuronal migration disorders.”
“The polymorphic gene of serum paraoxonase (PON1) and its activity involved in atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to analyze PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism and the enzyme activities in ischemic stroke. The polymorphism as the most common polymorphism

in PON1 gene coding sequence is associated with variation in the enzyme activity and vascular disease. The study included 85 stroke patients and 71 control subjects. PON1 192 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR protocol. Paraoxonase activity (Para) and arylesterase activity (Aryl) were determined spectrophotometrically using paraoxon and phenylacetate as the substrates. The QR and RR genotypes were selleck more frequent in stroke population compared to controls, resulting in a higher frequency of the R allele in patients (0.24 vs 0.18, OR = 1.41). Patients had significantly higher Para/Aryl ratio than that of controls (P = 0.016). In stroke patients, Para/Aryl and Para/HDL ratios increased with this

order: QQ < QR < RR. Hypertension significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke by 15-fold among R-containing people, while this was significantly increased 4-fold for QQ homozygotes. Smoking increased the risk of having ischemic stroke in both QQ homozygote and QR + RR group (OR = find more 2.84 and OR = 2.33, respectively). In conclusion, these data highlight the importance of PON1 192

R allele and high Para/Aryl ratio in susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population. The presence of the 192 R allele potentiates the risk of stroke especially in hypertensive people. Decreased Aryl and increased Para/Aryl, Para/HDL and Aryl/HDL ratios may be markers indicated the increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population.”
“Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive skeletal muscle cancer of childhood. Our initial studies of rhabdomyosarcoma gene expression for patients enrolled in a national clinical trial suggested that platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFR-A) may be a mediator of disease progression and metastasis. Using our conditional mouse tumor models that authentically recapitulate the primary mutations and metastatic progression of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas in humans, we found by immunoblotting and immunokinase assays that PDGFR-A and its downstream effectors, mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, were highly activated in both primary and metastatic tumors. Inhibition of PDGFR-A by RNA interference, small molecule inhibitor or neutralizing antibody had a dramatic effect on tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, although resistance evolved in one-third of tumors. These results establish proof-of-principal for PDGFR-A as a therapeutic target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.


were collected via structured observations and in-de


were collected via structured observations and in-depth interviews. Results Half of the households kept at least some free-range poultry and mixed at least some different species GSK2126458 molecular weight of poultry as it was considered beneficial for the poultry. Feeding and cleaning practices exposed children to contact with poultry; slaughtering contaminated homes; use of personal protective barriers was not a norm; waste management exposed the communities to slaughtering waste and dead chickens; and reporting of sick and dead poultry was not a practice. Only minor changes in poultry-handling took place following H5N1 virus outbreaks. Discussion H5N1 virus prevention in Egypt represents both an epidemiological and socio-cultural challenge. Traditional poultry-rearing practices that likely increase exposures to H5N1-infected poultry are common throughout Egypt. Despite education campaigns following 5-Fluoracil research buy sporadic H5N1 outbreaks, no differences in these practices could be detected between households with previous H5N1 human or poultry cases and those households with any previous experience with H5N1. Development of H5N1 infection-related education campaign strategies

should focus on perceptions underlying traditional practices in order to tailor public awareness messages that are meaningful for communities.”
“Metformin a well known antidiabetic drug has been recently investigated and proposed to promote neurogenesis and enhance the spatial memory formation. In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective effect of metformin check details with respect to Parkinson’s disease (PD). MPTP (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) (25 mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce Parkinsonism

in mice. Metformin 500 mg/kg was administrated orally for 21 days. Motor co-ordination and locomotor activities were evaluated by rotarod and open-field tests. The oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) specifically in the midbrain. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by analyzing the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by immunostaining and nissl staining of the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. In addition brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also estimated. Our findings demonstrated that long-term metformin treatment resulted in significant improvement of the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP-treated mice than acute treatment. Metformin treatment significantly improved the antioxidant activity as compared to MPTP-treated group. TH-positive cells decreased up to 16% in MPTP-treated mice as compared to normal mice (P smaller than 0.001) and were found to be protected from degeneration in metformin-treated mice (47%, P smaller than 0.01).

8% vs 86 0%, d = 0 487) than the non-menopausal women Women usi

8% vs. 86.0%, d = 0.487) than the non-menopausal women. Women using HRT did not show significantly better sleep compared to those who did not use HRT. No significant difference was observed between menopausal groups MEK inhibitor on subjectively assessed sleep parameters.\n\nConclusion: Menopause may contribute to specific aspects of sleep disturbances in midlife women with insomnia. Use of HRT for menopausal symptoms does not seem to attenuate such disturbances, although further investigation using hormonal level dosing and a larger sample size is warranted. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V.

All rights reserved.”
“Minimally invasive vertebral augmentation-based techniques have been used for the treatment of spinal fractures (osteoporotic and malignant) for approximately 25 years. In this review, we try to give an overview of the current spectrum of percutaneous augmentation techniques, safety aspects and indications. Crucial factors for success are careful patient selection, proper technique and choice of the ideal cement augmentation option.

Most compression fractures BV-6 present a favourable natural course, with reduction of pain and regainment of mobility after a few days to several weeks, whereas other patients experience a progressive collapse and persisting pain. In this situation, percutaneous cement augmentation is an effective treatment option with regards to pain and disability Ulixertinib reduction, improvement of quality of life and ambulatory and pulmonary function.”
“Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcoholism are highly comorbid in humans and have partially overlapping symptomatic profiles. The aim of these studies was to examine the effects of traumatic stress

(and stress reactivity) on alcohol-related behaviors and neuronal activation patterns. Male Wistar rats were trained to respond for alcohol, were exposed to predator odor (bobcat urine) paired with context and were tested for short-and long-term avoidance of the predator odor-paired context, alcohol self-administration and compulsivity of alcohol responding. Rats were re-exposed to the odor-paired context for western blot analysis of ERK phosphorylation in subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala. Rats that avoided the predator-paired chamber (Avoiders) exhibited persistent avoidance up to 6 weeks post conditioning. Avoiders exhibited increases in operant alcohol responding over weeks, as well as more compulsive-like responding for alcohol adulterated with quinine. Following re-exposure to the predator odor-paired context, Avoiders and Non-Avoiders exhibited unique patterns of neuronal activation in subregions of the mPFC and the amygdala, which were correlated with changes in avoidance and alcohol drinking. Furthermore, activity of upstream regions was differentially predictive of downstream regional activity in the Avoiders versus Non-Avoiders.

The MAPK p38 inhibitor SB-203580 significantly inhibited TF expre

The MAPK p38 inhibitor SB-203580 significantly inhibited TF expression induced by mechanical and chemical stimulations, but the MEK inhibitor PD-98059 did not inhibit TF induced by TFF. Immunoblotting revealed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by TFF was sustained for 120 min, whereas that induced by PFF was not. We conclude that disturbed flow induced greater and sustained amplification of TF expression, and

this synergistic effect may be regulated by p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. These results provide added insight into the mechanism of atherosclerosis in areas of disturbed flow.”
“Two new C(21)-steroidal esters, sarsaligates A (1) and B (2), and two new steroidal alkaloids, sarsaligenines A (3) and B (4), together with four known compounds (sarcovagine, sarcorucinine, dimethylamino-3 beta-pregnane-20-one, and beta-sitosterol 5-8, respectively), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Sarcococca saligna. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. Of the compounds tested, Blasticidin S concentration 5 and 6 were the most

cytotoxic against the cell lines K562, SK-BR-3, and PANC-1, with IC50 values in the range of 2.25-5.00 mu M, while 3 and 4 selectively inhibited HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 2.87 and 3.61 mu M, respectively. Compounds 3-6 therefore deserve further evaluation of their cytotoxic potentials.”
“The formation of plasma membrane (PM) microdomains plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane signaling and trafficking. Remorins are a plant-specific family of proteins organized in six phylogenetic groups, and Remorins of group 1 are among the few plant proteins known to specifically associate with membrane rafts. As such, they are valuable to understand the molecular check details bases for PM lateral organization in plants. However,

little is known about the structural determinants underlying the specific association of group 1 Remorins with membrane rafts. We used a structure-function approach to identify a short C-terminal anchor (RemCA) indispensable and sufficient for tight direct binding of potato (Solanum tuberosum) REMORIN 1.3 (StREM1.3) to the PM. RemCA switches from unordered to alpha-helical structure in a nonpolar environment. Protein structure modeling indicates that RemCA folds into a tight hairpin of amphipathic helices. Consistently, mutations reducing RemCA amphipathy abolished StREM1.3 PM localization. Furthermore, RemCA directly binds to biological membranes in vitro, shows higher affinity for Detergent-Insoluble Membranes lipids, and targets yellow fluorescent protein to Detergent-Insoluble Membranes in vivo. Mutations in RemCA resulting in cytoplasmic StREM1.3 localization abolish StREM1.3 function in restricting potato virus X movement.

The aim

of this study was to use oscillatory changes in t

The aim

of this study was to use oscillatory changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) related to informative cue processing, motor preparation, and top-down control to investigate neurophysiological differences between typically developing (TD) adolescents, and those diagnosed with predominantly inattentive (IA) or combined (CB) (associated with symptoms of inattention as well as impulsivity/hyperactivity) subtypes of ADHD. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 57 rigorously screened adolescents (12 to17 years of age; 23 TD, BI 2536 ic50 17 IA, and 17 CB), while they performed a cued flanker task. We examined the oscillatory changes in theta (3-5 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (22-25 Hz) EEG bands after cues that informed participants with which hand they would subsequently be required to respond. Results: Relative to TD adolescents, the IA group showed significantly less postcue alpha suppression, suggesting diminished processing of the cue in the visual cortex, whereas the CB

group showed significantly less beta suppression at the electrode contralateral to the cued response hand, suggesting poor motor planning. Finally, both ADHD subtypes showed weak functional connectivity between frontal theta and posterior alpha, suggesting common top-down control impairment. Conclusions: We found both distinct and common task-related neurophysiological impairments in ADHD subtypes. Our results suggest that task-induced changes in EEG oscillations provide an objective measure, PR-171 in vivo which in conjunction with other sources of information might help distinguish between ADHD subtypes and therefore aid in diagnoses learn more and evaluation of treatment.”
“Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression

of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased.

Finally, we adopted the experimental design and statistical metho

Finally, we adopted the experimental design and statistical method to calculate the best combination proportion (CG-4: CG-10: CG-14=2.065: 1.782: 2.153) to optimize its therapeutic effect.”
“OBJECTIVES: Bidirectional

cavopulmonary anastomosis (BDCPA) is part of the staged Fontan palliation for congenital heart defects with MLN4924 single-ventricle morphology. The aim of this study was to describe incidence and characteristics of early postoperative arrhythmias in patients undergoing BDCPA. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 60 patients undergoing BDCPA at the age of smaller than 12 months from 2001 to 2008 at a single centre. Arrhythmias were subclassified in sinus bradycardia, premature atrial/ventricular contraction, supraventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular block. The groups were compared according to age at operation and diagnosis. Postoperative follow-up data were included until Fontan completion. RESULTS: Postoperative arrhythmia was observed in STI571 20 patients: 12 temporary and 8 persisting until hospital discharge. Sinus bradycardia is a common postoperative arrhythmia and occurred in 16 patients (9 transient, 7 persistent until hospital discharge). One patient undergoing

BDCPA and a Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure had a persisting first-degree atrioventricular block. The occurrence of a postoperative arrhythmia was independent of age and diagnostic group (hypoplastic left heart vs non-hypoplasic left heart). After hospital discharge, five of the eight arrhythmia resolved spontaneously resulting in 2 patients with

sinus bradycardia and Bucladesine supplier 1 patient with a first-degree AV block immediately before the Fontan completion was undertaken. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative arrhythmias in patients with BDCPA occur early after surgery and are temporary. Severe and life-threatening arrhythmias are rare although the interventions are complex and the patients very young. The most common arrhythmia is sinus bradycardia.”
“Background: More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Gulf War (GW). We previously reported reduced hippocampal volume in GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to matched, unexposed GW veterans estimated from 1.5 T magnetic resonance images (MRI). Here we investigate, in a different cohort of GW veterans, whether low-level GB/GE exposure is associated with structural alterations in specific hippocampal subfields, estimated from 4 T MRI.

“To identify potential determinants of substrate selectivi

“To identify potential determinants of substrate selectivity in serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERT), models of human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT, dSERT) were built based on the leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) structure reported by Yamashita et al. (Nature 2005;437:215-223), PBDID SNX-5422 cost 2A65. Although the overall amino acid identity between SERTs and the LeuTAa is only 17%, it increases to above 50% in the first shell of the

putative 5-HT binding site, allowing de novo computational docking of tryptamine derivatives in atomic detail. Comparison of hSERT and dSERT complexed with substrates pinpoints likely structural determinants for substrate binding. Forgoing the use of experimental transport and binding data of tryptamine derivatives for construction of these models enables us to critically assess and validate their predictive power: A single 5-HT binding mode was identified that retains the amine placement observed in the LeuT(Aa) structure, matches site-directed mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) data, complies with support vector machine derived relations activity relations, and predicts computational binding energies for 5-HT analogs with a significant correlation coefficient (R = 0.72). This binding mode places 5-HT deep in the binding pocket of the SERT with the 5-position near residue

hSERT A169/dSERT D164 in transmembrane helix 3, the indole nitrogen next to residue Y176/Y171, and the ethylamine Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor tail under residues F335/F327 and S336/S328 within 4 angstrom of residue D98. Our studies identify a number of potential contacts whose contribution to substrate binding and transport was previously unsuspected.”
“Objective: The impact of language proficiency as a potential contributor to ethnic disparities in mental health care has received less attention buy GW786034 than other factors. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study were examined to assess the impact of limited English proficiency (LEP) on access to and quality of mental health care

for community-dwelling Latino and Asian Americans with mental disorders.\n\nMethods: English-proficient (EP) and LEP individuals with mental disorders were compared on lifetime use of healthcare services for a mental disorder, duration of untreated disorders, receipt of minimally adequate care, and barriers to treatment (eg, lack of identification of need for treatment, language barriers, and embarrassment or discomfort related to treatment).\n\nResults: Compared with EP individuals, LEP individuals with mental disorders were significantly less likely to identify a need for mental health services, experience longer duration of untreated disorders, and use fewer healthcare services for mental disorders, particularly specialty mental health care. Receipt of minimally adequate care did not differ significantly by language proficiency. Embarrassment and discomfort were not more common among LEP individuals.

02) There was no significant difference in the rate

02). There was no significant difference in the rate see more of nonfunctioning grafts, delayed graft function, or acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months. There was no significant difference between groups regarding graft or patient survival.\n\nConclusions. The use of kidneys from donors aged >= 70 older than or years yielded generally satisfactory results.”
“Background and Objectives: The KYOCERA Physio Hinge Total Knee System Type III (PHKIII) was developed to reconstruct bony defects of the distal femur. The PHKIII is originative

in that the metallic parts are fully made of titanium alloy, and this prosthesis has a unique semi-rotating hinge joint and was designed especially for people with the Napabucasin concentration Asian physical body-type. The clinical outcomes of the PHKIII after the resection of

musculoskeletal tumors of the distal femur were evaluated.\n\nMethods: There were 41 males and 28 females with a median age of 48-years. The median duration of follow-up was 57 months.\n\nResults: Eleven early complications and 37 late complications were observed, including 10 recurrences, 7 deep infections, 7 aseptic loosenings, 4 stem breakages, 4 displacements of shaft cap, and one wear of rotation sleeve. Twenty four prosthesis (35%) required a secondary operation because of complications. The five-year overall prosthetic survival rates, -prosthetic survival rate without aseptic loosening, and -limbs preservation rate were 85%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The mean functional score according to the classification system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society was 20.5 points (68%).\n\nConclusions: Although continuous follow-up is required, reconstructions using PHKIII are considered to achieve more acceptable functional results. J. Surg. Oncol. CP-868596 order 2011;103:257-263.

(C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Objectives: The influence of obesity on postoperative complications after various surgical interventions remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of overweight and obesity on the occurrence of postoperative complications for patients undergoing elective resection for rectal carcinoma.\n\nMethods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of 676 patients undergoing surgical treatment for rectal carcinoma. Depending on their body mass index (BMI), patients were grouped as follows: group I, patients up to BMI 24.9 kg/m(2); group II patients, with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m(2); and group III, all patients with a BMI 930 kg/m(2). Complications were classified as minor and major with regard to severity grades (1-5). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the difference in complication rates between the different BMI groups.\n\nResults: A total of 444 patients were included for analysis. Overall, 300 (67.6%) of the 444 patients did not develop postoperative complications, 82 (18.


filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with the


filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study formula. Patients were divided into medically or invasively VX-770 mouse treated groups if revascularized within 14 days of admission. A propensity score for the likelihood of invasive therapy was calculated. A Cox regression model with adjustment for propensity score and discharge medication was used to assess the association between early revascularization and 1-year mortality across renal function stages. There was a gradient, with significantly fewer patients treated invasively with declining renal function: eGFR >= 90 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2), 62%; eGFR 60 to 89 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2), 55%; eGFR 30 to 59 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2),

36%; eGFR 15 to 29 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2), 14%; and eGFR < 15 Vorinostat manufacturer mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2)/ dialysis, 15% (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the overall 1-year mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 0.73, P < 0.001) with an invasive strategy. The magnitude of survival difference was similar in normal-to-moderate renal function groups. The lower mortality observed with invasive therapy declined with lower renal function, with no difference in mortality in patients with kidney failure (eGFR < 15 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2)) or in those receiving dialysis (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 3.09, P=0.15).\n\nConclusions-Early invasive therapy is associated with greater 1-year survival in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, but the benefit declines with lower renal function, and is less certain in those with renal failure or on dialysis. (Circulation. 2009; 120:851-858.)”
“Two new iridoids, 10-O-benzoyl-6′-O-alpha-L-arabino(1 -> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosylgeniposidic

acid (1), deacetyl-6-ethoxyasperulosidic acid methyl ester (2), along with 14 other known iridoids, were isolated from the whole plant of Hedyotis diffusa WILLD. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The short-term-memory-enhancement activities of compounds 1, 7-9, 11, and 13 AZD7762 molecular weight were evaluated on an A beta transgenic drosophila model.”
“A case of persistent bloodstream infection with Kocuria rhizophila related to a damaged central venous catheter in a 3-year-old girl with Hirschsprung’s disease is reported. The strain was identified as K. rhizophila by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis showed a clonal strain. The repeated septic episodes were resolved with the catheter repair.”
“Palladium-catalyzed amination of isomeric bromochloro- and dibromobenzenes with 1- and 2-aminoadamantanes was studied.

7 perceived high levels of consistency of care (managerial contin

7 perceived high levels of consistency of care (managerial continuity). Patients from health-care areas where primary and secondary care were managed by a single organization and the elderly buy AR-13324 tended to perceive higher levels of all three types of continuity. Foreign-born patients were less likely to perceive relational continuity with primary care physicians; those with higher educational levels were less likely to perceive high levels of informational continuity and patients with worse health status were less likely to report high levels of managerial and relational continuity with secondary care physicians.\n\nStudy

results suggest high levels of perceived continuity of care, especially for relational and managerial continuity. The Small molecule library mw adopted comprehensive approach proves to be useful to properly

understand the phenomenon because perceptions and associated factors vary according to the type of continuity.”
“Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most relevant chronic respiratory pathologies due to its high prevalence and impact in morbidity and mortality. In 2001, the Asociacion Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria (AAMR) published the first Argentinean Consensus on Sleep-Related breathing Disorders. Since then, wide new scientific evidence has emerged, increasing significantly the knowledge about this pathology. According to this, the Sleep-Related breathing Disorders and Oxygen Therapy Section of the AAMR, decided to update its Consensus, developing this Practical Guidelines on Management of patients with OSAS. A working group was created with members belonging to the section, experts in OSAS. They extensively buy LDN-193189 reviewed the literature and wrote these guidelines, orientated to practical resolution of clinical problems and giving answers to questions emerged from dealing with patients

who suffer from this syndrome. The document defines OSAS and describes the diagnosis and severity criteria, as well as the risk factors, ways of presentation and epidemiology. Clinical consequences, mainly on cognition, cardiovascular system and metabolism are pointed out. Different diagnostic methods, with their indications and technical aspects for validation and interpretation are detailed. Finally, we describe therapeutic alternatives, as well as practical aspects of their implementation. The authors’ aim was to generate an accessible tool for teaching and spreading the knowledge on these disorders, which have a great impact in public health.”
“We present a full-field technique that allows label-free cytoskeletal network imaging inside living cells. This noninvasive technique allows monitoring of the cytoskeleton dynamics as well as interactions between the latter and organelles on any timescale. It is based on high-resolution quantitative phase imaging (modified Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry) and can be directly implemented using any optical microscope without modification.