A similar dilution effect was observed by Todd (1964) during efforts to control Stomoxys calcitrans at a New Zealand dairy farm by covering larval development sites in ‘ensilage stacks’ (accumulations of decomposing organic matter including manure).
Abundant and fragmented habitat types such as broadleaved woodland present particular problems with regard to targeting larval development sites as the potential for habitat modification is limited in comparison to other artificial/man-made habitats such as leaking taps or overflowing water troughs ( Harrup et al., 2013). The lack of effect recorded on populations of C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi was more disappointing, however, as these species were known to be restricted to cattle dung, the
primary constituent of the heaps. This finding may reflect a lack of understanding Venetoclax supplier of larval habitat requirements, GSK-3 signaling pathway as previous studies carried out in Australia have demonstrated moisture-associated vertical movement in dung associated Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer larvae characterised emergence in detail ( Bishop et al., 1996 and Campbell and Kettle, 1976). Similar studies that further define the localisation of C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi in dung through direct sampling would therefore be useful in understanding the impact of dung disturbance not only by artificial collection into heaps but also in natural degradation by arthropod fauna ( Bishop et al., 2005). The contribution to the local adult Culicoides population
via dispersal from neighbourghing farms is also unknown and may act a significant confounding factor and limitation to the effectiveness of control measures if they are not uniformly employed across farms in an area. A second major difficulty in interpretation of the current study was the inability to identify females of the subgenus Avaritia to species level. These represented 88.0% of the total catch (266,148 individuals) collected across the eight farms used. Identification of this cryptic subgenus to species level is currently primarily based on multiplex PCR assays whose logistical and financial constraints limit the number of specimens which can be processed for the majority of studies. Advances in quantitative real-time PCR based assays of pools of Culicoides, however, will Ketanserin enable species-level characterisation of large multi-year datasets such as that included in this study ( Mathieu et al., 2011). In addition to failing to reduce local adult Culicoides abundance, no apparent change was observed on treatment farms in the onset of recorded female subgenus Avaritia Culicoides activity in 2009, when compared to 2007 and 2008. The speed of development of Culicoides larvae is in part determined by environmental temperature ( Akey et al., 1978, Allingham, 1991, Bishop et al., 1996, Bishop and McKenzie, 1994, Kitaoka, 1982, Vaughan and Turner, 1987 and Veronesi et al.