One of the advantages that polymer-based TNPs have over lipid-based TNPs is that polymer-based TNPs are able to generate a more controlled drug delivery. AZD9291 The use of TNPs for each of these drugs allows lower drug clearance and a longer half-life . In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice,compared
to chemotherapy alone. These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolutely, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells . Niches of CSCs: Niches are microenvironments where CSCs reside, containing cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and soluble factors that support the growth, progression, and selleck chemicals metastasis AR-13324 chemical structure of CSCs . Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal SCs (MSCs) are known to form fibroblast and myofibroblast populations in the tumor-associated stroma. Recently, evidence has been demonstrated that MSC and derived cell types
could secrete prostaglandin E2 and release various cytokines, which are vital for the formation and progression of a tumor . Furthermore, MSC affected metastatic ability and chemoresistance in two ovarian cancer cell lines: OVCAR3 and SKOV3 . Katz et al. reported that tumorigenic ability of ovarian tumor cells was dependent on niches
derived from human embryonic stem tuclazepam cells . The hypoxic niches were beneficial for acquirement of stem-like properties of ovarian cancer cells . These findings highlight the vital role of CSCs niches, which represent a promising therapeutic target for eradicating CSCs in the future. Indeed, disrupting components in the niches may yield better outcomes without noncytotoxic effect, when compared with that of removing the CSCs . MicroRNAs (miRNAs) MiRNAs are a group of small noncoding RNAs with 20–28 nucleotides in length. They could regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Thus, miRNAs are involved in diverse biological processes, such as development and tumorigenesis . The expression profile of miRNAs was different between normal SCs and CSCs [199, 200]. MiR-214 was highly expressed in ovarian CSCs and endowed the property of self-renewal and chemoresistance in ovarian CSCs via repressing p53- Nanog pathway . MiR-199a significantly rescued the sensitivity of ovarian CSCs to some chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin, paclitaxel, and Adriamycin. Moreover, miR-199a prevented tumorigenesis in xenograft model via downregulating expression of CSCs marker CD44. In addition, the expression of miR-200a could reduce migrating ability of CD133+ ovarian CSCs.