GW is the Principal Investigator of the funded


GW is the Principal Investigator of the funded

projects. PD98059 She coordinated the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligately anaerobic bacterium. It is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea among patients undergoing antibiotic treatment [1, 2]. The severity of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, and intestinal perforation [3–6]. Mortality rates of CDAD reportedly range from 6 to 30% [5, 7, 8]. During the last decade, the incidence of CDAD has increased significantly in North America [9–12] and Europe [4, 8, 13, 14]. In the USA and Canada, this increase has been associated with the emergence of a novel, hypervirulent strain designated NAP1/027 [11, 15]. Strains with the same genotype and associated outbreaks have also been reported from several European countries [14, 16–18]. For infection control investigations and epidemiological studies, it is mandatory to track the emergence and spread of epidemic strains. For this purpose, appropriate genotyping methods are needed. The utility of a typing method will depend on its inter-laboratory reproducibility and data portability, its discriminatory power and concordance

of identified groupings with epidemiology, the temporal stability of the genetic markers investigated, Selleckchem GS-9973 and the universal typeability of isolates [19]. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats C59 datasheet analysis (MLVA) is the most discriminatory method presently Berzosertib mw available for typing C. difficile [20, 21]. Recently reported results suggested that the level of resolution achieved through MLVA may be highly useful for detecting epidemiological clusters of CDAD within and between hospitals [21, 22]. The genetic loci currently exploited for MLVA-typing of C. difficile accumulate variation so rapidly, however, that

longer-term relationships between isolates get obscured [23]. It is therefore advisable – and has been a common practice – to combine MLVA with the analysis of more conserved genetic markers [20–23]. Most commonly applied approaches to genotyping C. difficile at present are DNA macrorestriction analysis (based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, mostly used in Canada and the USA [12, 15, 24]) and PCR ribotyping (in Europe [25–27]). These two methods yield largely concordant results [23, 27]. While DNA macrorestriction has slightly higher discriminatory power than PCR ribotyping, it is also more labour-intensive and time consuming [23, 27–29]. A major disadvantage of PCR ribotyping, DNA macrorestriction, and other band-based typing techniques (including restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) [30]) is the poor portability and interlaboratory comparability of the generated data.

Consistent with this, a

Consistent with this, a recent work showed that a X. citri

mutant in XAC0019 displays reduced capacity to form SN-38 chemical structure a biofilm [32] and its expression is increased during X. citri biofilm formation [42]. In the present study, XAC0019 protein was down-regulated in the hrpB − mutant impaired in biofilm formation, reinforcing the role of this protein in this process. Enzymes involved in EPS production XanA and GalU, [30, 31] were up-regulated in the hrpB − mutant. Consistently, all the hrp mutant analyzed in this work produced larger amounts of EPS in comparison with X. citri and also had higher expression levels of gumD. Recent MK-4827 chemical structure reports have shown that X. citri galU mutant strain is not pathogenic and also

loses its capacity to form a biofilm due to a reduction in EPS production [30, 32], and that a X. citri xanA mutant has an altered capacity for biofilm formation LDN-193189 research buy [47]. Although, the hrp mutants are impaired in biofilm formation, these mutants produce more EPS than X. citri. This interesting result open new hypotheses about the link between T3SS and EPS production, thus further studies are needed to unravel this issue. In other pathogens, such as P. aeruginosa, T3SS gene expression is coordinated with many other cellular activities including motility, mucoidy, polysaccharide production, and also biofilm formation [48]. Bacterial motility was impaired in the hrp mutants and consistently,

proteins known as involved in these processes such as the outer membrane protein XAC0019 [32] and the bactofilin CcmA [33, 34] were down-regulated in the hrpB − mutant. Besides, swarming motility was less affected than swimming in the hrp mutants selleck chemical compared with X. citri. This may be due to the fact that in X. citri swarming motility depends on flagella and also on the amount of EPS secreted [16], and since these mutants over-produced EPS swarming was less affected than swimming. This work demonstrated that in X. citri T3SS is involved in multicellular processes such as motility and biofilm formation. Furthermore, our results suggest that T3SS may also have an important role in modulating adaptive changes in the cell, and this is supported by the altered protein expression when this secretion system is not present. It was previously shown that an E. coli O157 strain mutant in the additional T3SS named ETT2 is impaired in biofilm formation [13]. It was also suggested that deletion of ETT2 might cause structural alterations of the membrane modifying bacterial surface properties, thus affecting bacteria-bacteria interactions or the interaction with host cells [13]. Further, it was proposed that these structural alterations could trigger a signal that activates differential gene expression and/or protein secretion [13].

84% ± 0 32%), significantly lower than that in the control group

84% ± 0.32%), significantly lower than that in the control group (17.71% ± 0.78%) (P < 0.05), and the time required for BTS formation in the ATRA group was (10.07 ± 1.03)d, significantly longer than that in the control group (4.08 ± 0.35)d (P < 0.05). The BTSs obtained from differentiated BTSCs were CD133 positive (Fig. 7), indicating that stem cell phenotype was restored again. Accordingly, the differentiated BTSCs induced by ATRA did not accomplish terminal differentiation and lose the proliferation capability.

ATRA can induce the differentiated BTSCs into BEZ235 mw more mature ones, but the induction is not thorough and complete, and terminal differentiation cannot be achieved. Figure 7 Immunofluorescence staining of BTS generated from differentiated selleckchem BTSCs for CD133(Cy3, × 400). 7A: DAPI. 7B:CD133. 7C:Merge. It showed the BTS obtained from differentiated BTSCs were CD133 positive. Discussions Ever since Singh et al discovered BTSCs for the first time in 2003[2], many scholars have confirmed that BTSCs exist in the brain tumor tissue and its cell lines, and possess the potential of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation, multilineage parent differentiation and high tumorigenicity[3–6]. In 2004, Galli

et al and Singh et al proposed a new tumorigenesis model, believing that BTSCs were the initiating cells of tumor formation[4, 5]. These BTSCs proliferated and differentiated following the same symmetric and asymmetric division rule as neural stem cells,

namely, Thiamet G accomplishing self-renewal and proliferation by symmetric division, and producing relatively mature progeny cells by asymmetric division which can be differentiated into more mature tumor cells. Induction of differentiation of glioma cells into benign ones has been one of the research focuses of glioma therapy in recent years. The application of differentiation inducers can increase the differentiation of the tumor cells and inhibit proliferation. ATRA, as a classic differentiation inducer, has achieved a very good curative effect in clinical treatment of hematological neoplasms and PD0332991 in vivo lymphoma. In vitro study has indicated that ATRA can induce the differentiation and apoptosis of a variety of glioma cells[7]. Many researches have confirmed that BTSCs are able to self renew and proliferate continuously when cultured in serum-free medium containing growth factor, retaining the inherent feature of stem cells, but differentiate into tumor cells with the shape and molecular phenotype resembling the parental tumor under serum-containing conditions[2–6]. This study has used BTSCs as the therapeutic target to investigate the effect of ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of BTSCs both in the serum-free and serum-containing mediums. BTSCs with a high purity must be obtained first in order to do research on BTSCs.

This work was funded in part by the ANR “RhizocAMP” (ANR-10-BLAN-

This work was funded in part by the ANR “RhizocAMP” (ANR-10-BLAN-1719) and the Pôle de Compétitivité “Agrimip Innovation Sud Ouest”. This work is part of the “Laboratoire d’Excellence” (LABEX) entitled TULIP (ANR-10-LABX-41). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: SpdA, a putative Class III phosphodiesterase. (A) Phylogenetic tree generated with [1]. The tree shows the phylogenetic relationship of the 15 IPR004843-containing proteins of S. meliloti with known phosphodiesterases from M. tuberculosis (Rv0805), H. influenzae (Icc) and E. coli

(CpdA and CpdB). (B) Table showing the distribution of the five class III PDE subdomains among the 15 IPR004843-containing proteins from S. meliloti. (PDF 386 KB) Additional file 2: INCB018424 Plasmids used selleck inhibitor in this study. (PDF 364 KB) Additional file 3: Molecules and conditions tested for expression of spdA ex planta. (PDF 429 KB) Additional file 4: Enzymatic characteristics of purified SCH727965 nmr SpdA. (A)Lineweaver-Burk representation of SpdA kinetics of hydrolysis of 2′, 3′ cAMP. Purified SpdA was assayed as described in methods. (B)SpdA kinetic values. (PDF 237 KB) Additional file 5: SpdA does not require metal cofactor for 2′, 3′ cAMP hydrolysis. (A) Activity assayed in absence (CT) or presence of ions chelators. (B) SpdA activity in absence (CT) or presence of added bivalent ions.

(PDF 245 KB) Additional file 6: 2′, 3′ cAMP weakens smc02178-lacZ expression. (A) smc02178-lacZ expression was monitored ex planta in S.meliloti 1021 WT and ΔSpdA background strains after addition of 2.5 mM 3′, 5′-cAMP and/or 7.5 mM 2′, 3′-cAMP. ***p < 1.3E-06, PLEKHB2 **p < 0.0001, *p < 0.003 with respect to the wild type. (B) hemA-lacZ expression was monitored ex planta in S. meliloti 1021 WT and ΔSpdA background strains after addition of 2.5 mM 3′, 5′-cAMP and/or 7.5 mM 2′, 3′-cAMP. (PDF 547 KB) Additional file 7: Growth characteristics and stress adaptability of the ΔSpdA mutant. (A) Growth curves of 1021 WT and ΔSpdA mutant strains in LBMC or in VGM supplemented or not with 7.5 mM

2′, 3′ cAMP. (B and C) sensitivity of 1021 WT and ΔSpdA strains to SDS (B) and heat shock (C) (see methods for details). (PDF 274 KB) Additional file 8: spdA mutant symbiotic phenotype. (A) Nodulation kinetics on M. sativa following inoculation with S. meliloti 1021 and ΔSpdA mutant. (B) Dry weight of M. sativa shoots 35 dpi (C and D). Expression pattern of the smc02178-lacZ reporter gene fusion in young (7dpi) nodules of M. sativa following inoculation with S. meliloti 1021 (C) and ΔSpdA mutant (D). (PDF 513 KB) Additional file 9: Bacterial strains used in this study. (PDF 373 KB) Additional file 10: Primers and oligonucleotides used in this work. (PDF 326 KB) References 1. Jones KM, Kobayashi H, Davies BW, Taga ME, Walker GC: How rhizobial symbionts invade plants: the Sinorhizobium-Medicago model. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007,5(8):619–633.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 2.

Sequence similarities from Genbank BLASTn (XLSX 10 KB) Reference

Sequence similarities from Genbank CUDC-907 cell line BLASTn. (XLSX 10 KB) References 1. Ovreas L, Curtis TP: Microbial diversity and ecology. In Biological Diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Edited by: Magurran AE, McGill BJ. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011:221–236. 2. Alexander E, Stock A, Breiner HW, Behnke A, Bunge J, Yakimov MM, Stoeck T: Microbial eukaryotes in the hypersaline anoxic L’Atalante deep-sea basin. Environ Microbiol 2009, 11:360–381.PubMedCrossRef 3. Edgcomb V, Orsi W, Leslin C, Epstein S, Bunge J, Jeon SO, Yakimov MM, Behnke A, Stoeck T: Protistan community patterns within the brine and halocline

of deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Extremophiles 2009, 13:151–167.PubMedCrossRef 4. Camerlenghi A: Anoxic basins of the eastern

Mediterranean: geological framework. Mar Chem 1990, 31:1–19.CrossRef TH-302 order 5. La Cono V, Smedile F, Bortoluzzi G, Arcadi E, Maimone G, Messina E, Borghini M, Oliveri E, Mazzola S, L’Haridon S, et al.: Unveiling microbial life in new deep-sea hypersaline Lake Thetis. Part I: Prokaryotes and environmental settings. Environ Microbiol 2011,13(8):2250–2268.PubMedCrossRef 6. van der Wielen PW, Bolhuis H, Borin S, Daffonchio D, Corselli C, Giuliano L, D’Auria G, de Lange GJ, Huebner A, Varnavas SP, et al.: The enigma of prokaryotic life in deep hypersaline anoxic basins. Science 2005,307(5706):121–123.PubMedCrossRef 7. Azam F, Fenchel T, Field J, Gray J, Meyer-Reil L, Thingstad F: The ecological role of water column microbes in

the sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1983, 10:257–263.CrossRef 8. Corliss JO: Biodiversity and biocomplexity of the protists and an overview of their significant roles in maintenance of our biosphere. Acta Protozool 2002,41(3):199–220. 9. Finlay BJ, Corliss JO, Esteban G, Fenchel T: Biodiversity at the microbial level: the number of free-living ciliates in the biosphere. Ouart Rev Biol 1996, 71:221–237.CrossRef 10. Lynn DH, Gilron GL: A brief review of approaches using ciliated protists to assess aquatic ecosystem health. J Aquatic Ecosyst Health 1992, 1:263–270.CrossRef 11. Doherty Docetaxel ic50 M, Cosatas BA, McManus GB, Katz LA: Culture independent assessment of planktonic ciliate diversity in coastal northwest Atlantic waters. Aquat Microb Ecol 2007, 48:141–154.CrossRef 12. Fenchel T, Finlay BJ: The diversity of microbes: resurgence of the phenotype. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2006,361(1475):1965–1973.CrossRef 13. Finlay BJ: Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species. Science 2002,296(5570):1061–1063.PubMedCrossRef 14. Foissner W, Chao A, Katz LA: Diversity and geographic distribution of ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora). Biodiv Conserv 2008, 17:345–363.CrossRef 15.

It is likely that

the differences between these two studi

It is likely that

the differences between these two studies may reflect the methods used to achieve dehydration. Paik et al., [48] used passive means in the heat (sauna exposure) to achieve 3% hypohydration, while this present study used both a passive and active (exercise) dehydration protocol to achieve the 2.5% body weight loss. Although speculative, it is possible that differences between methods used for dehydration may have resulted in a different AZD5153 oxidative stress. The time used to achieve body weight loss, although performed at a lower intensity of exercise, resulted in significant elevations in MDA concentrations that were not altered by water or water and AG. The anabolic and catabolic QNZ purchase response to the study protocol did not differ among trials suggesting that the supplement was unable to provide any significant benefit regarding enhanced recovery from the exercise and hypohydration stress. It is also possible that these hormonal measures may not have been sensitive enough for assessing recovery from a moderate dehydration and endurance exercise protocol [49]. [TEST] did not significantly elevate from baseline levels following exercise despite a reduction in plasma volume. This is not surprising considering that subjects experienced only a moderate hypohydration stress and that time to exhaustion ranged from 13 – 18 minutes. Exercise of relatively short duration (i.e. 10-20 minutes)

does not appear to increase [TEST] [50, 51], even with a mild hydration perturbation in fit individuals [52]. The CORT response was consistent with previous studies that have shown that hydration levels do not influence [CORT] [52, 53]. The post-exercise elevation in CORT was also consistent with the metabolic stress associated with moderate exercise and hypohydration [53, 54]. Results of this study though were unable to show that CORT responses can differentiate between levels of hypohydration, which contrasts with observations made by Judelson et al., [55] and Maresh et al.,

[54]. However, the ability for hypohydration to modify the catabolic response to exercise appears to be more relevant when hypohydration reaches 5% or greater, PtdIns(3,4)P2 or when exercise is performed at higher exercise intensities [54, 55]. These findings also suggest that the pituitary-adrenal axis responds similarly to this exercise and hypohydration perturbation as ACTH responded in a similar pattern as CORT, with no influence from the AG supplementation. GH secretion patterns have been shown to be quite responsive to changes in the acid-base balance of muscle [56]. Considering that no differences were noted in the La- response between the trials, the GH response to the exercise and hypohydration stress appears to have responded in a normal manner. These results are also in agreement with Judelson et al., [55] but, contrast with Peyreigne and colleagues [57].

In this

study, we aim to adapt the Luc-DENV for anti-DNEV

In this

study, we aim to adapt the Luc-DENV for anti-DNEV neutralizing selleck inhibitor and enhancing antibodies evaluation. This newly developed reporter virus-based assay is validated using various known monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and clinical samples from infected animal and patients, demonstrating well correlation with the traditional plaque-based assays. Results Development of check details Luc-based neutralizing assay The Luc-DENV was developed by engineering the Renilla luciferase gene into the capsid-coding region by reverse genetic technology [9]. We have shown that Luc-DENV replicates efficiently in both mammalian and mosquito cells with high stability. As shown in Additional file 1: Figure S1 and Additional file 2: Figure S2, increasing amounts of luciferase signal were observed from 24 to 96 h post-infection in Luc-DENV infected BHK-21 and K562 cells. To adapt Luc-DENV for neutralizing assay, we firstly assayed three identified neutralizing mAbs 4G2 [10], 2B8 [11] and 2A10G6 [11] by using plaque-based and Luc-based assay, respectively. Standard PRNT was performed in 12-well plates using 10-fold selleck dilution of each mAb. The results showed that all three mAbs significantly reduced the numbers of plaques in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 1,ABC, right ordinate). The PRNT50 of 4G2, 2B8 and 2A10G6 was 8.55, 0.45 and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. The RLU based assay was performed in the 12-well plate using the same dilutions

of each mAb. The results demonstrated that all three mAbs significantly decreased RLU in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 1, ABC, left ordinate). LRNT50 of three mAbs calculated from a fitting curve were 6.80, 0.86 and 0.26 μg/mL, respectively, which was of the same order of magnitude with PRNT50. An unrelated mAb against EV71 showed no neutralization for both plaque and Luc-based assay (data not shown). Data fitting was made between values above. As expected, a linear correlation (R2 > 0.95) was demonstrated between PFU and RLU assay,

and the linear equation between RLU and PFU is calculated as RLU = 86.74 PFU + 2256 (Figure 1D). Our results supported the application of Luc-based assay for neutralization antibodies against DENV. Figure 1 Comparison of the new and conventional antibody neutralization assay system. Neutralization activities mediated by various concentrations of mAbs (A: Oxymatrine 4G2, B: 2B8, C: 2A10G6) specific for E protein of DENV in BHK-21 cells were performed with the new (square) and conventional (round) antibody neutralization assay system. Error bars indicate the standard deviations from two independent experiments. (D) Linear correlation between RLU and PFU values for neutralization assay. Development of Luc-based ADE assay To develop the Luc-DENV for ADE assay, K562 cells were infected with Luc-DENV in the presence of serial 10-fold dilutions of 2A10G6. The viral titers in the supernatants were measured by standard plaque-based assay and Rlu-based assay, respectively.

The energy input into lipid dispersion is very high in this metho

The energy input into lipid dispersion is very high in this method. The coupling of energy at the tip results in local hotness; therefore, the vessel must be engrossed into a water/ice bath. Throughout the sonication up to 1 h, more than 5% of the lipids can be check details de-esterified. Also, with the probe sonicator, titanium will slough off and pollute the solution.   b) Bath sonication. The liposome dispersion in a cylinder is placed into a bath sonicator. Controlling the temperature of the lipid dispersion

is usually easier in this method, in contrast to sonication by dispersal directly using the tip. The material being sonicated can be protected in AZD0530 solubility dmso a sterile vessel, dissimilar the probe units, or under an inert atmosphere [20].   French pressure cell: extrusion French pressure cell involves the extrusion of MLV through a small orifice [18]. Tanespimycin An important feature of the French press vesicle

method is that the proteins do not seem to be significantly pretentious during the procedure as they are in sonication [21]. An interesting comment is that French press vesicle appears to recall entrapped solutes significantly longer than SUVs do, produced by sonication or detergent removal [22–24]. The method involves gentle handling of unstable materials. The method has several advantages over sonication method [25]. The resulting liposomes are rather larger than sonicated

SUVs. The drawbacks of the method are that the high temperature is difficult to attain, and the working volumes are comparatively small (about 50 mL as the maximum) [18, 19]. Freeze-thawed liposomes SUVs are rapidly frozen and thawed slowly. The short-lived sonication disperses aggregated materials to LUV. The creation of unilamellar vesicles is as a result of the fusion of SUV throughout the processes of freezing and thawing [26–28]. This type of synthesis is strongly inhibited by increasing the phospholipid concentration and by increasing the ionic strength of the medium. The encapsulation efficacies from 20% to 30% were obtained [26]. Solvent dispersion method Ether injection (solvent vaporization) A solution of lipids dissolved in diethyl ether or ether-methanol mixture why is gradually injected to an aqueous solution of the material to be encapsulated at 55°C to 65°C or under reduced pressure. The consequent removal of ether under vacuum leads to the creation of liposomes. The main disadvantages of the technique are that the population is heterogeneous (70 to 200 nm) and the exposure of compounds to be encapsulated to organic solvents at high temperature [29, 30]. Ethanol injection A lipid solution of ethanol is rapidly injected to a huge excess of buffer. The MLVs are at once formed.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:10941–10946PubMedCrossRef Pinter N, Ve

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:10941–10946PubMedCrossRef Pinter N, Vestal WD (2005)

El Nino-driven landsliding and postgrazing vegetative recovery, Santa Cruz Island, California. J Geophys Res-Earth. doi:10.​1029/​2004JF000203 Sutherland WJ, Pullin AS, Dolman PM, Knight TM (2004) The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 19:305–308PubMedCrossRef Wake DB, Vredenburg VT (2008) Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:11466–11473PubMedCrossRef Weissman DB, Rentz DCF, Alexander RD, Loher W (1980) Field crickets (Gryllus and Acheta) of California and Baja California, Mexico (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae). Trans Am Entomol Soc 106:327–356″
“Introduction Species associated with open sandy habitats have found refuges in sand pits created by mining of sandy soil. In northern Europe, several of these species are rare or endangered (e.g. Bergsten 2007; Eversham et al. 1996; Frycklund 2003; Ljungberg 2002; Schiel and Rademacher 2008; Sörensson 2006), because the

total area of open, disturbed habitats has declined following changes in land-use. One important change is Volasertib regrowth or afforestation of sites with sandy, low-productivity soils, where cattle commonly grazed centuries ago (Emanuelsson 2009). Another change is a reduction in the frequency of forest fires, which commonly resulted in open sandy spots after consuming the organic topsoil. Consequently, sand pits have become valuable habitats for beetles (Eversham et al. 1996; Ljungberg 2001, 2002; Molander 2007; Sörensson 1983) and several other organism

groups, e.g., aculeate wasps (Bergsten 2007; Drewes 1998; Sörensson 2006), butterflies (Frycklund 2003; Koeppel et al. 1994) and vascular plants (Andersson 1995; Bzdon 2008; Widgren 2005). Protein tyrosine phosphatase For these species, the usual practice of restoring abandoned sand pits by levelling out slopes, planting trees, and adding topsoil is detrimental (e.g., Bell 2001; Dulias 2010). Many conservationists BAY 80-6946 price recognize the value of sand pits as habitats for threatened species. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the kinds of pits being most valuable for conserving the various taxa of fauna and flora that rely on them. One important factor influencing species richness and composition is patch size. Large areas tend to hold larger numbers of species than smaller areas (Connor and McCoy 1979; Rosenzweig 1995). This species-area relationship (SAR) is a robust generalization, based on numerous empirical studies (reviewed in Drakare et al. 2006). Island biogeography theory was developed by MacArthur and Wilson (1967) to explain SA-relationships, and the theory has since been extended to include terrestrial habitat patches with disjunctive surrounding habitats.

“Background In recent years, ceramic with nanostructures h

“Background In recent years, ceramic with nanostructures has Selleckchem Regorafenib attracted a lot of attention and is being used in the fields of electronics, information Nec-1s mouse technology, and communications [1]. It has found wide application in other areas as well, including the mechanical and chemical sciences and electrical, optical, and electrochemical energy sectors as effective electrode materials [2, 3]. Among various chemical or physical synthetic

methods, the electrospinning method is a popular one and involves the use of an electrically charged jet of polymer solution to form the nanofibers. The method can be described as follows. A high voltage is applied to the ceramic material solution with a polymer, and an electric field is generated between the tip of the syringe containing the solution and the collector. The solution is ejected in the form of a jet by electrical repulsion onto the collector, and fibers of nanoscaled diameters with inorganic precursor selleck chemical are formed [4]. The precursor nanofibers at high temperature are calcined to remove the polymers, and ceramic phase is obtained. This technique has been applied for the preparation of various metal oxide and ceramic nanofibers as well [5, 6], which

included TiO2[7], ZnO [8], SnO2[9], BaTiO3[10], and Al2O3[2–6, 11]. Alumina (Al2O3) is one of the most important types of ceramic and is applied to the areas of catalysis, reinforcing components, electronic device fabrication, microelectronics, optics, and fire protection [12]. Most recently, alumina has been explored as effective electrode material for electrochemical energy storage device [13–15]. Al2O3 has specific physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, and during the process of forming the stable

α-Al2O3, gibbsite is transformed to boehmite and then to a variety of metastable intermediate structures such as χ-, γ-, κ-, δ-, θ-alumina, depending on the temperature [16, 17]. The main objective of the study is to investigate the calcination conditions on morphological appearance Astemizole and crystal structure of the resulting alumina and the adsorption property of alumina calcined at different temperatures. Therefore, we investigated the synthesis of alumina nanofibers using a technique that combined the sol–gel and electrospinning methods using aluminum isopropoxide (AIP), an organometallic compound, as the precursor and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) polymer solution. The formation, morphology, and crystallinity of the electrospun alumina nanofibers were determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Gas Chromatograph (Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus AF) and the alumina nanofiber samples synthesized were evaluated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. In addition, different phase alumina nanofibers were applied for the adsorption of methyl orange dye (MO) solution.