They are also used in gene therapy clinical trials both for the ex vivo modification of cells and for direct in vivo injection. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanism(s) by which such vectors might stimulate the immune system. We evaluated the effect of lentiviral vectors on myeloid dendritic cells (DC), the main target of lentiviral transduction following subcutaneous immunization. The activation of DC cultures was independent of the lentiviral pseudotype but dependent on cell entry and reverse transcription. In vivo-transduced DC also displayed a mature phenotype, produced tumor necrosis factor alpha
(TNF-alpha), and stimulated naive CD8(+) T cells. The lentiviral activation of DC was Toll-like receptor (TLR) dependent, as it was inhibited in TRIF/MyD88 selleck inhibitor knockout (TRIF/MyD88(-/-))DC. TLR3(-/-) or TLR7(-/-) DC were Avapritinib datasheet less activated, and reverse transcription was important for the activation of TLR7(-/-) DC. Moreover,
lentivirally transduced DC lacking TLR3 or TLR7 had an impaired capacity to induce antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. In conclusion, we demonstrated TLR-dependent DC activation by lentiviral vectors, explaining their immunogenicity. These data allow the rational development of strategies to manipulate the host’s immune response to the transgene.”
“Complex N-glycans flank the receptor binding sites of the outer domain of HIV-1 gp120, ostensibly forming a protective “”fence”" against antibodies. Here, we investigated the effects of rebuilding this fence with smaller glycoforms by expressing HIV-1 pseudovirions from a primary isolate in a human cell line lacking N-acetylglucosamine transferase I (GnTI), the enzyme that initiates the conversion
of oligomannose N-glycans into complex N-glycans. Thus, complex glycans, including those that surround the receptor binding sites, are replaced by fully trimmed oligomannose stumps. Sorafenib mw Conversely, the untrimmed oligomannoses of the silent domain of gp120 are likely to remain unchanged. For comparison, we produced a mutant virus lacking a complex N-glycan of the V3 loop (N301Q). Both variants exhibited increased sensitivities to V3 loop-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and soluble CD4. The N301Q virus was also sensitive to “”nonneutralizing”" MAbs targeting the primary and secondary receptor binding sites. Endoglycosidase H treatment resulted in the removal of outer domain glycans from the GnTI-but not the parent Env trimers, and this was associated with a rapid and complete loss in infectivity. Nevertheless, the glycan-depleted trimers could still bind to soluble receptor and coreceptor analogs, suggesting a block in post-receptor binding conformational changes necessary for fusion.