Strain IC166T produces a wide range of extracellular enzymes degrading proteins and polysaccharides. These enzymes are cold adapted, they have temperature optima between 15-30��C and can tolerate temperatures below 0��C Tipifarnib myeloid . For that reason they are of special interest for industrial and biotechnical applications. C. algicola like the other members of the genus Cellulophaga, cannot hydrolyze filter paper or cellulose in its crystalline form, though they can hydrolyze the soluble cellulose derivative carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The genome sequence of strain IC166T revealed the presence of three cellulases (Celal_0025, Celal_2753, Celal_3912), probably responsible for the hydrolysis of CMC. In addition two ��-glucosidases (Celal_0470, Celal_1802) were identified in the genome, catalyzing the break down of the glycosidic ��-1,4 bond between two glucose molecules in cellobiose.
The IC166T genome contains 22 genes coding for sulfatases, which are located in close proximity to glycoside hydrolase genes suggesting that sulfated polysaccharides may be used as substrates. ��-L-fucoidan could be a substrate, as five ��-L-fucosidases (Celal_2459, Celal_2466, Celal_2469, Celal_2470, Celal_2473) are located in close proximity to three sulfatases (Celal_2464, Celal_2468, Celal_2472). Sakai and colleagues report the existence of intracellular ��-L-fucosidases and sulfatases, which enable ‘Fucophilus fucoidanolyticus’ to degrade fucoidan . This fucoidan degrading ability could be also shared by Coraliomargarita akajimensis, as the annotation of the genome sequence revealed the existence of 49 sulfatases and twelve ��-L-fucosidases .
In addition, three ��-agarases (Celal_2463, Celal_2494, Celal_3979) were identified, with two of them located in the above mentioned region, which is rich in genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and sulfatases. Acknowledgements We would like to gratefully acknowledge the help of Regine F?hnrich (DSMZ) for growing C. algicola cultures. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program, and by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No.
DE-AC02-06NA25396, UT-Battelle and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, as well as German Research Foundation (DFG) INST 599/1-2.
Figure 1 shows the phylogenetic neighborhood of strain RQ-24T in a 16S rRNA based tree. The sequences of the two 16S rRNA gene copies in the genome differ from Anacetrapib each other by four nucleotides, and differ by up to three nucleotides from the previously published 16S rRNA sequence (“type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”DQ022076″,”term_id”:”67644063″,”term_text”:”DQ022076″DQ022076), which contains one ambiguous base call.