(C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Develop Neurobiol 72: 9901005, 2

(C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 72: 9901005, 2012″
“Liposarcomas (LS) are mesenchymal tumors that can recur after surgical resection and often do not respond to presently find more available medical therapies. This study demonstrates the dependence of LS on de novo long-chain fatty acid synthesis for growth. Lipogenesis can be impaired by inhibiting the activities of lipogenic enzymes. including acetyl CoA-carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), or by suppressing the expression of key genes involved in the pathway and its regulation The FASN inhibitors cerulenin and orlistat reduced the growth of two

LS cell lines (LiSa2. SW872). as did inhibition of ACC with soraphen A CDDO-Me. a synthetic triterpenoid. suppressed expression of Spot 14 and FASN genes and likewise inhibited LS cell growth Importantly. the anti-proliferative effect of each agent was prevented by the co-administration of palmitate, the major product of cellular long-chain fatty acid synthesis. In stark contrast to LS cells, these compounds had no effect on the growth of fibroblasts

Four biochemically distinct agents that target critical CCI-779 points in the fatty acid synthetic pathway exert anti-proliferative effects on LS cells, and rescue of cell growth by palmitic acid suggests that reduced tumor cell lipogenesis mediates the growth inhibition These findings warrant further studies aimed at the clinical exploitation of the dependence of LS cell growth on fatty acids”
“A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing

gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport VS-6063 measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10(11) cm(-2). The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications.”
“The nuclear arsenal and the use of nuclear technologies have enhanced the likelihood of whole-body/partial-body radiation exposure. The central nervous system is highly susceptible to even low doses of radiation.

9 (range 20 7-26 8) There were 38 snorers and 39 OSA patients T

9 (range 20.7-26.8). There were 38 snorers and 39 OSA patients. The AHI improved in patients with OSA, 25.3 +/- 12.6

to 11.0 +/- 9.9 (P < 0.05). The overall Success rate for this OSA group was 71.8 percent (at mean 33.5 months). The mean snore scores (visual analog score) improved from 8.4 to 2.5 (for all 77 patients). Lowest oxygen saturation also improved in all OSA patients. Subjectively, all patients felt less tired.\n\nCONCLUSION: This technique has been shown to be effective in the management of patients with snoring and mild-moderate OSA. (c) 2009 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. All rights reserved.”
“Many smallholder breeding programs in C59 wnt developing countries failed because of neglecting basic conditions, particularly the no involvement of farmers in a participatory manner from design to the implementation phase of the programs. Inadequate centralized breeding plans to improve local breeds and various plans prescribing crossbreeding with European highly producing breeds, failed. Though some nucleus breeding programs were successful

and Smoothened Agonist mw attained some sustainability if the farmers’ participation was considered, they still are vulnerable once the funding provided ends. An evolving approach, emerging from participatory research experiences, involves community-based breeding programs for smallholder farmers in low-input systems. These are being implemented in pilot research sites with promising results and already rendering lessons learned that merit

consideration in relation with the sustainability of a program. The paper discusses important factors for the success of these programs. Farmers’ participation along with main issues for program implementation are highlighted in relation to site selection, the communication JNJ-26481585 datasheet processes, recording schemes, role of scientists, the institutionalisation of cooperation and the enabling environment. Finally, ongoing case studies of successful community-based breeding programs are mentioned. Shortcomings in farmers’ participation require attention and institutional strengthening for effective application of participatory tools and knowledge exchange between farmers and researchers. But participatory research alone is not the sole prescription for success. No matter how participatory the plans will be, they will always depend on technical support and institutional support for data collection, analysis and feedback. This is hindered because of the short-term projection of funding for research projects. An important issue relates to the out scaling of successful experiences at project level that benefits only a limited number of farmers.

The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differe

The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences among American, Asian, and European medical students (MS) regarding different study methods and to see how these methods affected their clinical skills.\n\nTo analyze the varying study methods of European, American, and Asian MS in our program and in order to elucidate any

ethnic and cultural differences a survey was Fer-1 conducted. A total of 705 international MS, from the Polish (PD), American (AD), and Taiwanese (TD) divisions, were asked to voluntarily participate in the questionnaire. Students were asked the following questions: which methods they used to study anatomy, and which of the methods they believed were most efficient for comprehension, memorization, and review. The questions were based on a 5-point Likert scale, where 5 was ‘strongly agree’, and 1 was ‘strongly disagree’.\n\nThe PD and AD preferred the use of dissections

and prosected specimens to study anatomy. The TD showed less interest in studying from prosected specimens, but did acknowledge that this method was more effective than using atlases, plastic models, or CD-ROMs. Multimedia tools were mainly used for radiological anatomy and review and also for correctly typing proper names of structures using exact anatomical terminology.\n\nThe findings learn more highlight the differences in study techniques among students from different ethnic backgrounds. The study approaches used in order to accomplish learning objectives was affected by cultural norms that influenced check details each student group. These differences may be rooted in technological, religious, and language barriers, which can shape the way MS approach learning.”
“This paper describes a novel sorbent based on 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and its application for the extraction and pre-concentration of trace amounts of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The nanosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,

X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of various parameters such as pH, sorption time, sorbent dosage, elution time, volume and concentration of eluent were investigated. Following the sorption and elution of analytes, Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of detection were 0.07 and 0.7 mu g l(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb (II), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the method were less than 7%. The sorption capacity of this new sorbent were 92 and 78 mg g(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Finally this nanosorbent was applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in different real samples and satisfactory results were obtained.”
“BACKGROUND: The presence of silent cerebral infarction (SCI) increases the risk of transient ischemia attack, symptomatic stroke, cardiovascular disease and dementia.

A similar

effect has been found in chronic pelvic inflamm

A similar

effect has been found in chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. The review also revealed that balneotherapy has some beneficial effects on antioxidant status, and on metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Based www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk923295.html on the results, we conclude that balneotherapy with Hungarian thermal-mineral waters is an effective remedy for lower back pain, as well as for knee and hand osteoarthritis.”
“Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many different phenotypes. Moderate and severe asthma phenotypes have been associated with increased neutrophils and increased Th17 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients. Th17 cytokines recruit neutrophils to the airway by increasing secretion of epithelial-derived neutrophilic chemokines. In addition, BI 6727 molecular weight Th17 cytokines also induce mucous cell metaplasia and have pleotropic effects on airway smooth muscle resulting in airway narrowing. The role of Th17 cytokines in regulating Th2 cytokine

expression and allergic airway inflammation remains unclear with conflicting reports. However, the role of Th17 cells in asthma will be answered in ongoing clinical trials with therapeutics targeting IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling.”
“Background: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a complex group of neurodegenerative disorders with great genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, over 30 genes/loci have been associated with more than 20 different clinical forms of ARCA. Genetic heterogeneity combined with highly variable clinical expression of the cerebellar symptoms and overlapping features

complicate furthermore the etiological diagnosis of ARCA. The determination of the most frequent mutations and corresponding ataxias, as well as particular features specific to a population, are mandatory to facilitate and speed up the diagnosis process, especially when an appropriate treatment is available. Methods: We explored 166 patients (115 families) refered to the neurology units of Algiers central hospitals (Algeria) with a cerebellar ataxia phenotype segregating as an autosomal recessive Selleckchem AZD5153 pattern of inheritance. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and mutational screening was performed by PCR and direct sequencing or by targeted genomic capture and massive parallel sequencing of 57 genes associated with inherited cerebellar ataxia phenotypes. Results: In this work we report the clinical and molecular results obtained on a large cohort of Algerian patients (110 patients/76 families) with genetically determined autosomal recessive ataxia, representing 9 different types of ARCA and 23 different mutations, including 6 novel ones.

In order to evaluate

the groundwater-derived (222)Rn flux

In order to evaluate

the groundwater-derived (222)Rn flux, we monitored the (222)Rn concentration in lake water over periods long enough (usually 1-3 d) to observe changes likely caused by variations in atmospheric https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html exchange (primarily a function of wind speed and temperature). We then attempt to reproduce the observed record by accounting for decay and atmospheric losses and by estimating the total (222)Rn input flux using an iterative approach. Our methodology was tested in two lakes in central Florida: one of which is thought to have significant groundwater inputs (Lake Haines) and another that is known not to have any groundwater inflows but requires daily groundwater augmentation from a deep aquifer (Round Lake). Model results were consistent with independent seepage meter data at both Lake Haines (positive seepage of similar to 1.6 x 10(4) m(3) d(-1) in Mar 2008) and at Round Lake (no net groundwater seepage).”

acetate, a GnRH agonist, is commonly used to prevent folliculogenesis in several species. However, little is known of the effect of deslorelin acetate implants on the oestrous cycle of female guinea pigs. Fifteen intact healthy female guinea pigs were investigated in this study. Signs of sexual behaviour, the presence of a vaginal membrane along with plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E-2) and progesterone (P-4), were monitored during two consecutive oestrous cycles. Nirogacestat cell line At the beginning of the third oestrous cycle

each guinea pig was administered an implant of the GnRH analogue, deslorelin acetate, (4.7 mg). When compared to the untreated state, deslorelin implantation was associated with altered signs of oestrus. The average time to opening of the vaginal membrane was delayed. After opening, the vaginas were found to be variably opened and closed. A significant reduction in P-4 (to less than 1.0 ng/ml) and cessation of P-4 cyclical variation was observed. Plasma E-2 remained high during the whole experimental period. This study shows that cessation EPZ004777 Epigenetics inhibitor of the oestrous cycle by the deslorelin implant might be useful in preventing pregnancy in guinea pigs.”
“This paper describes a sample preparation method that complements a previously published liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for acetaminophen and eight structurally-related compounds in human serum (C. Bylda, R. Thiele, U. Kobold, D.A. Volmer. Drug Test. Anal. 2014, 6, 451). The analytes (acetaminophen [APAP]+metabolites acetaminophen-glucuronide [APG], -cysteine [APC], -mercapturate [APM] and -cysteine [APC], structurally similar analogues phenacetin and p-phenetidine, as well as tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and amitryptiline) were extracted from serum using magnetized hyper-crosslinked polystyrene particles.


HMBC measurements corroborated by X-ray crystall


HMBC measurements corroborated by X-ray crystallographic results revealed the exclusive regioselectivity of these ring closures toward the N-2 position of the thiosemicarbazide moiety. The bioactivity data of 3a-k suggest that the thiazolidine-4-one ring is critical for the herbicidal and fungicidal activities. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Potassium channels are tetrameric proteins that mediate K(+)-selective transmembrane diffusion. For KcsA, tetramer stability depends on interactions between permeant ions and the channel pore. We have examined the role of pore blockers on the tetramer stability of KirBac1.1. In 150 mM KCl, purified KirBac1.1 protein migrates as a monomer (similar to 40 kDa) on SDS-PAGE. Addition LBH589 Epigenetics inhibitor of Ba(2+) (K(1/2) similar to 50 mu M) prior to loading results in an additional tetramer band (similar to 160 kDa). Mutation A109C, at a residue located near the expected Ba(2+)-binding site, decreased tetramer stabilization by Ba(2+) (K(1/2) similar to 300 mu M), whereas I131C, located nearby, stabilized tetramers in the absence of

Ba(2+). Neither mutation affected Ba(2+) block of channel activity (using (86)Rb(+) flux assay). In contrast to Ba(2+), Mg(2+) had no effect on tetramer stability (even though Mg(2+) was a potent blocker). Many studies have shown Cd(2+) block of K(+) channels as a result of cysteine substitution of cavity-lining M2 (S6) residues, with the implicit interpretation that coordination

of a single ion by cysteine side chains along the central axis effectively blocks the pore. We examined blocking GSK1210151A purchase and tetramer-stabilizing effects of Cd(2+) on KirBac1.1 with cysteine substitutions in M2. Cd(2+) block potency followed an alpha-helical pattern consistent with the crystal structure. Significantly, Cd(2+) strongly stabilized tetramers of I138C, located in the center of the inner cavity. This stabilization was additive with the effect of Ba(2+), consistent with both ions simultaneously occupying the channel: Ba(2+) at the selectivity filter entrance and Cd(2+) coordinated by I138C side chains in the inner cavity.”
“While T cell-based vaccines have the potential to provide protection against chronic virus infections, they also have the potential to generate MS-275 datasheet immunopathology following subsequent virus infection. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the conditions under which T cells lead to protection versus adverse pathology. The model illustrates how the balance between virus clearance and immune exhaustion may be disrupted when vaccination generates intermediate numbers of specific CD8 T cells. Surprisingly, our model suggests that this adverse effect of vaccination is largely unaffected by the generation of mutant viruses that evade T cell recognition and cannot be avoided by simply increasing the quality (affinity) or diversity of the T cell response.

Methods Ultrasonographers uploaded a set of four-chamber views fr

Methods Ultrasonographers uploaded a set of four-chamber views from 10 consecutive screening examinations and a second set 3 months later. They were randomised to receive (group A) or not (group B) a feedback

for their first set. The primary outcome was the difference in image mean score and in percentage of inadequate images between the first set and the second set, comparing the groups with and without feedback. Results There were 258 ultrasonographers who completed the trial (group A: 122; group B: 136), and 5160 images were audited. GDC-0941 mouse In both groups, the mean score increased. In group A, it rose from 17.0 to 18.5 (p smaller than 0.0001), and in group, B from 17.6 to 18.3 (p smaller than 0.0001). The improvement was greater in group A than in group B (1.5 vs 0.7, p = 0.0007).

The mean percentage of inadequate images decreased in both groups. In group A, it dropped from 32% to 19% (p smaller than 0.0001), and in group B, from 26% to 21% (p = 0.012). The decrease was greater in group A than in group B (13% vs 5%, p = 0.007). Conclusions Image quality improved following online audit, the improvement being slightly greater with feedback. (C) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“In this report, the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas was extracted and tested for its capacity to affect migration and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor https://www.selleckchem.com/products/arn-509.html cells. SJP is an intensely sulfated polysaccharide with a molecular weight of Epigenetics inhibitor 1.79 x 10(5) Da that is capable of promoting neurosphere attachment and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SJP effectively maintains cell viability even after being deprived of mitogens. Our current results demonstrate that neurosphere are differentiated into neuronal and glial cells when exposed to SJP. These effects were accompanied by an

up-regulation of the adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. In addition, we observed that blocking of PI3K activity inhibited N-cadherin-mediated activity. This SJP-induced up-regulation of N-cadherin mediates neurosphere adhesion migration and differentiation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that SJP could be used as a therapeutic agent to mobilize neuroblast migration under conditions of brain injury and disease.”
“Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a complex flavoprotein, catalyzes the metabolic reactions leading from hypoxanthine to xanthine and from xanthine to urate, and both reactions take place at the molybdenum cofactor. The enzyme is a target of drugs for therapy of gout or hyperuricemia. We review the chemical nature and reaction mechanisms of the molybdenum cofactor of XOR, focusing on molybdenum-dependent reactions of actual or potential medical importance, including nitric oxide (NO) synthesis.

These are isolated and fully characterized by melting/decompositi

These are isolated and fully characterized by melting/decomposition points, [alpha](D), elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Salts with BF(4), PF(6), SbF(6), and the weakly coordinating Al[OC(CF(3))(3)](4) anion were prepared. X-Ray crystal Structures of an enamine and of six iminium salts have been obtained and are described herein (Figs. 2 AZD1208 in vitro and 4-8, and Tables 2 and 7) and in a previous preliminary communication (Helv. Chim. Acta 2008, 91, 1999). According

to the NMR spectra (in CDCl(3), (D(6))DMSO, (D(6))acetone, or CD(3)OD; Table 1), the major isomers 4 of the iminium salts have (E)-configuration of the exocyclic N=C(1′) bond, but there are up to 11% of the (Z)-isomer present in these

solutions (Fig. 1). In all crystal structures, the iminium ions have (E)-configuration, and the conformation around the exocyclic N-C-C-O bond is synclinal-exo (cf. C and L), with one of the phenyl groups over the pyrrolidine ring, and the RO group over the pi-system. One of the meta-substituents (Me in 4b, CF(3) in 4c and 4e) on a 3,5-disubstituted phenyl group is also located in the space above the pi-system. DFT Calculations at various levels of theory (Tables 3-6) confirm Epigenetic inhibitor that the experimentally determined structures (cf. Fig. 10) are by far (up to 8.3 kcal/mol) the most stable ones. Implications of the results with respect to the mechanism of organocatalysis by diarylprolinol derivatives are discussed.”
“A high complete remission (CR) rate has been reported in newly diagnosed Philadelphia Roscovitine chromosome-positive

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) following imatinib-based therapy. However, the overall effect of imatinib on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is undetermined. Between 2002 and 2005, 100 newly diagnosed adult patients with Ph+ALL were registered to a phase II study of imatinib-combined chemotherapy (Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group Ph+ALL202 study) and 97 patients achieved CR. We compared clinical outcomes of 51 patients who received allo-HSCT in their first CR (imatinib cohort) with those of 122 historical control patients in the pre-imatinib era (pre-imatinib cohort). The probability of overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 65% (95% confidence interval (CI), 49-78%) for the imatinib cohort and 44% (95% CI, 35-52%) for the pre-imatinib cohort. Multivariate analysis confirmed that this difference was statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44, P = 0.005). Favorable outcomes of the imatinib cohort were also observed for disease-free survival (P = 0.007) and relapse (P = 0.002), but not for non-relapse mortality (P = 0.265).

“Twenty-one healthy helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris)

“Twenty-one healthy helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) housed at the Oklahoma City Zoo were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of topical selamectin. Birds were divided randomly into three groups of seven birds each. On day 1, all birds received one dose of 20 mg/kg selamectin topically. Based on the group number, blood was collected from each bird on three separate occasions over a 28-day period. Plasma using liquid chromatography

with mass spectrometry was used to determine selamectin https://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html concentrations. Mean plasma terminal half-life and maximum plasma concentrations of selamectin were 5.8 days and 16.1 ng/ml, respectively, with maximum plasma levels reached at 3 days. No adverse effects were detected. Birds in this study did reach and maintain plasma levels reported as therapeutic in other species(1) for 19 days. Based on these results, selleck kinase inhibitor selamectin may be a valuable antiparasiticide in some avian species.”
“The binding extent of odorant mixtures from aqueous suspensions by native, high pressure-treated starches and starch cryotexturizates was studied using capillary gas chromatography. The materials were corn, sorghum and amaranth starches. The native and high pressure-treated (650 MPa/9 min) starches

were mixed with odorants and incubated (24 h) at room temperature. To obtain the cryotexturizate-odorant product, starch gels were frozen with odorants (-24 degrees C), stored (48 h) and thawed. Terpene hydrocarbons were strongly bound from the mixture

by all the starches analyzed. SYN-117 The nonpolar molecules of terpene hydrocarbons modified the nature of hydrophobic binding sites in starch which in turn affected binding affinity of alcohols, ketones and phenols to the preparations. The competition effect between odorants for the binding sites was found. The varied ability of starch preparations to bind odorants was also related to the granule morphology and alteration in their structure upon treatment used. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The need to develop accurate representation of the human eye for the purpose of physiological studies is important to ensure that the predicted results are reliable. The presence of natural circulation of aqueous humor (AH) is evident from clinical, experimental and simulated observations. Most of the thermal models of the human eye that are found in the literature, however, had assumed a stagnant AH inside the anterior chamber. In this paper, a two-dimensional model of the human eye is developed where the circulation of AH inside the anterior chamber is included. The effects of the AH flow on the temperature distribution inside the eye are investigated. The natural circulation of AH is found to increase the temperature and distorts the temperature profile in the cornea and anterior chamber.

XRD, SEM, IR and TEM were employed to investigate the effect of r

XRD, SEM, IR and TEM were employed to investigate the effect of recombinant human-like collagen on the formation of hydroxyapatite. The results showed that nano-hydroxyapatite coating could

be formed on pretreated NiTi alloy in CSBF (Collagen Simulated Body Fluid), and the coprecipitation of hydroxyapatite and recombinant human-like collagen were confirmed by IR CFTR inhibitor spectrum with the typical peaks of phosphate and amide bands. Moreover, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals showed preferential orientation oil collagen fibrils with the c-axis of hydroxyapatite being parallel to the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibrils. The nano-hydroxyapatite coating with special structure would benefit for the application of NiTi alloy in the orthopaedic field. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Stress and hypercaloric food are recognized

risk factors for obesity, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Given the complexity of these metabolic processes and the unavailability of animal models, there is poor buy AZD7762 understanding of their underlying mechanisms. We established a model of chronic psychosocial stress in which subordinate mice are vulnerable to weight gain while dominant mice are resilient. Subordinate mice fed a standard diet showed marked hyperphagia, high leptin, low adiponectin, and dyslipidemia. Despite these molecular signatures of MetS and T2D, subordinate mice fed a standard diet were still euglycemic. We hypothesized that stress predisposes

subordinate mice to develop T2D when synergizing with other risk factors. High fat diet aggravated dyslipidemia and the MetS thus causing a pre-diabetes-like state in subordinate mice. Contrary to subordinates, dominant mice were fully protected from stress-induced metabolic disorders when fed both a standard- and a high fat-diet. Dorsomorphin in vitro Dominant mice showed a hyperphagic response that was similar to subordinate but, unlike subordinates, showed a significant increase in VO2, VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio when compared to control mice. Overall, we demonstrated a robust stress- and social status-dependent effect on the development of MetS and T2D and provided insights on the physiological mechanisms. Our results are reminiscent of the effect of the individual socioeconomic status on human health and provide an animal model to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams.