When compared to the A22/Iraq vaccine, these viruses had more tha

When compared to the A22/Iraq vaccine, these viruses had more than 40 aa changes SB431542 chemical structure in the capsid region, whilst about 35% of these had r1 values above 0.3 indicating a good match. This indicates that a large proportion of the substitutions are neutral and only a few, located at particular capsid positions impact on the antigenic nature of the virus. Similar analyses were also carried out to study if the r1-values correlated with the number of aa changes in

each of the individual structural proteins (VP1-4); however no linear correlation was observed (data not shown). In vitro testing of viruses belonging to the BAR-08 sub-lineage with either A22/Iraq or A/TUR/2006 antisera generated low r1-values indicating lower expected protection. The capsid aa sequences of these viruses, including sequences for two isolates previously reported [13], were analysed further to understand the changes in the antigenicity of these viruses. As most of these viruses do not cross-react with the antisera of either of the v/s, we specifically looked for aa residues in the field

isolates which were different from those of both the v/s ( Fig. 4). A total of 11 aa residues were identified; three residues (VP1-45, 65 Afatinib and VP3-59) were indicated in a similar study [13]. Three residues were eliminated as being either completely (VP1-28) or partly (VP2-98) on the internal surface of the virion ( Fig. 5C), or completely (VP1-65) buried in the structure; though Jamal and colleagues indicated substitution of VP1-65 may change the surface structure [13]. The remaining GBA3 eight residues (VP1-45, 83, 141; VP2-65, 79; VP3-59, 65, 220) were surface-exposed ( Fig. 5B) and are therefore good candidates to explain the inability of the antisera to cross-react with the field isolates. The substitutions in VP2-65 and 79 were recorded in nine out of 10 isolates studied. We excluded VP1-45 because (i) both the residues are hydrophobic; (ii) this/adjacent residues were reported to be part of antigenic site-3 in case of serotype O viruses [7] and SAT 1 [33], however this has never been reported in serotype A mar-mutant studies;

(iii) this residue is also picked up by epitope prediction software, however, mutation of this residue in a cDNA clone did not have much impact on the antigenicity of the virus (F. Bari and M. Mahapatra, unpublished results). Three residues VP1-83, 141 and VP3-59 (shown in cyan in Fig. 5B) have been reported to be critical in serotype A mar-mutant studies [3], [4], [5] and [9]. A change in these residues may affect the overall conformation of the viral capsid and thereby alter the antigenicity of the virus. VP3-220 is located in close proximity to the C-terminus of VP1 of an adjacent protomer, and in close vicinity to residue VP3-218, which was recently reported to be critical in serotype Asia 1 [8]. In addition, all these residues were highly variable among the A-Iran-05 viruses ( Fig.

3 The immune response to the antigen was assessed by measuring t

3. The immune response to the antigen was assessed by measuring the titer of polyclonal antibody in mouse serum using indirect ELISA. The mice with the highest titer were splenectomized on day 3 after the last antigen injection. The splenocytes were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells at a ratio of 5:1 using 50% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) according to the technique established by Kohler and Milstein.7 SCH772984 nmr Using this methodology, five anti-NS1 mAbs (P148.1, P148.7, P148.9, P148.L1, P148.L2) were developed and characterized. The production, purification and characterization

of the anti dengue ‘NS1 mAb’ were performed by affinity chromatography according to the published protocol.8 This purified mAb antibody was subsequently used in the ELISA assay, as the capture antibody. The bsmAb was developed by fusing two different hybridoma cell lines, P148.L1 anti-NS1 mAb and YP4 anti-HRPO mAb each hybridoma at 2 × 107 cells was separately isolated from the two cell lines VRT752271 mouse in their logarithmic growth phase. The anti-HRPO YP4 is a well-characterized rat hybridoma that was previously selected for drug resistance to 8-azaguanine,

making it sensitive to aminopterin in HAT medium. The P148.L1 (re-suspended in RPMI media, pH 7.4) was labeled with the red dye TRITC. The YP4 (re-suspended in RPMI media, pH 6.8) was labeled with the green dye FITC. Both hybridomas were incubated for 30 min in a 5% CO2 chamber (37 °C). Excess dye was removed by repeated washes (×3) with RPMI serum free media. The cells were thoroughly mixed and then centrifuged at 459× g for 7 min. The pellet was collected and suspended in RPMI. The supernatant was removed and the fusion of the two cell lines was done by drop-wise addition of 2 ml of polyethylene glycol to the cell pellet with continuous stirring for 2 min at 37 °C. The toxic effect of PEG was immediately addressed by diluting the mixture with 20 ml of serum free RPMI media. This mixture was then centrifuged at 114× g for 5 min and the cell pellet was again suspended in RPMI media containing 10% FBS. The fused cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated

cell sorting (FACS) and (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate the dual positive cells were seeded in a 96-well sterile tissue culture plate at a concentration of 1 cell/well. The cells were cultured in 20% FBS media at 37 °C with 5% CO2 and their growth was regularly monitored. Based on cell growth, after approximately two weeks of culture, the cells were screened for their activity using the bridge ELISA technique. The stable, cloned bsmAb secreting cells were seeded in a hyper flask for large-scale expansion. 7–10 days later the supernatant was harvested and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 30 min. The collected supernatant was passed through a 0.22 μm filter to remove cell debris and the clarified supernatant was further processed to obtain pure bsmAb antibody. The purified bsmAb was then used as the detection antibody in the bsmAb ELISA immunoassay. Purified P148.

Le recours au Samu en tant que premier intervenant est comparable

Le recours au Samu en tant que premier intervenant est comparable dans les différentes tranches d’âge, variant de 36 à 39 % des patients, et l’appel direct des pompiers est également homogène (entre 10 % et 12 %) ; en revanche, les personnes âgées appellent plus souvent leur médecin traitant (tableau II). Le délai médian entre le premier appel et la réalisation de l’ECG augmente chez les patients âgés : 32 minutes avant 65 ans, 30 minutes entre 65 et 74 ans, 38 minutes entre 75 et

84 ans et 50 minutes à partir de 85 ans. Le délai entre l’ECG et l’angioplastie primaire est homogène dans les trois premières classes d’âge (entre 75 et 77 minutes), NLG919 supplier mais nettement plus long à partir de 85 ans (95 minutes). L’admission directe dans un centre de cardiologie interventionnelle est cependant homogène à travers les tranches d’âge (74,5 % avant 65 ans, 72 % chez les patients de 85 ans et plus). Les antécédents coronaires sont de plus en plus fréquents avec l’âge ; ainsi, les antécédents d’infarctus doublent entre les moins de 65 ans (8,2 %) et les patients de 85 ans et plus (18,7 %). De même, les antécédents d’accident

vasculaire cérébral passent de 1,1 % à 9 % et ceux d’insuffisance cardiaque, de 0,6 % à 9 %. La plupart des comorbidités augmentent également. Sur le plan des facteurs de risque, le tabagisme actif lors buy Talazoparib de l’infarctus et les antécédents familiaux diminuent considérablement ; le diabète augmente jusqu’à 85 ans, pour diminuer ensuite ; l’hypertension progresse de façon régulière. La prévalence Bumetanide de l’hypercholestérolémie définie comme des taux anormalement élevés ou un traitement hypolipémiant en cours, diminue à partir de 65 ans (tableau III). Dans l’infarctus NSTEMI, l’évolution de la présentation clinique en fonction de l’âge reflète les mêmes tendances ; une douleur thoracique typique est plus rarement retrouvée que dans les STEMI, en particulier chez les sujets

les plus âgés ; ainsi, deux-tiers seulement des patients âgés de 85 ans et plus décrivent une douleur typique. Les antécédents coronaires sont plus fréquents que dans le STEMI, et ce quelle que soit la tranche d’âge. À l’inverse des STEMI, l’orientation des patients vers un centre de cardiologie interventionnelle diminue avec l’âge : 71 % des moins de 65 ans, 69 % entre 65 et 74 ans, 65 % entre 75 et 84 ans, et 62 % au-delà. Quel que soit le type d’infarctus, les troubles du rythme ou de la conduction progressent avec l’âge. Ainsi, on retrouve une fibrillation atriale sur le premier ECG réalisé chez 2,4 % des patients de moins de 65 ans, 7 % des 65–74 ans, 11,7 % des 75–84 ans et 14,4 % des patients de 85 ans et plus. La prévalence des blocs de branche droite et blocs de branche gauche sont respectivement de 3,7 % et 1,1 %, 7,5 % et 4,2 %, 9,8 % et 7,2 % et enfin de 10,8 % et 7,9 %.

Omission of these clauses or lack of their inclusion may be due t

Omission of these clauses or lack of their inclusion may be due to the nature, duration and circumstances surrounding each agreement. GDC-0973 mw Standardized legal analysis of SUAs and technical assistance, as well as tools provided by such organizations as ChangeLab Solutions, could help mitigate these and other overlooked issues during the construction of a

shared-use agreement (ChangeLab Solutions, 2009a). Collectively, the benefits of working with the JUMPP Task Force were evident by the higher number of school districts that instituted a programmatic element in their contractual arrangements (more than were originally planned) and the emphasis that the JUMPP-assisted SUAs had adult-oriented programming (Table 4). The programmatic inclusion had previously been shown to be associated with greater usage of the opened space or facilities by community members (Lafleur et al., 2013). Many of the costs related to SUA implementation were not enumerated in this present review due to limited information on expenses incurred by the

school districts mTOR inhibitor cancer and the local organizations themselves. Accounting for these additional expenditures, the ratio of CPPW funds invested-to-community members reached would increase. Further research and economic evaluations are clearly needed to study this important subject matter, including: more comprehensive legal classification of SUA types; costs incurred by school districts and individual schools while participating in these efforts; and whether SUAs increased net physical activity among community members. With declining budgets and resources in many jurisdictions, SUAs and the partnerships they support may offer important opportunities

for cities and/or communities to promote physical activity at relatively lower cost as compared to other strategies, maximizing existing community assets when possible. The achievements ADP ribosylation factor of the JUMPP Task Force during 2010–2012 represent emerging models of SUA design and practice that can be replicated and potentially used to guide future shared-use efforts in other communities across the United States. The authors report no financial disclosures or conflicts of interest. The authors would like to thank Aida Angelescu, Janice Casil, and Douglas Morales in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health for their technical assistance with GIS mapping. In addition, the authors would like to thank Mikaela Randoph from RENEW LA County for her programmatic contributions; Dr.

Rates of serious maternal complications appear very low (median <

Rates of serious maternal complications appear very low (median < 5%) [92]. Timing of delivery should be individualized, recognizing that on average, pregnancy prolongation is 2 weeks. If preeclampsia is complicated by HELLP, fewer days will be gained (median 5) and serious maternal morbidity will be higher (median 15%); >50% have temporary improvement of HELLP which may enable regional anaesthesia or vaginal delivery [92]. For late preterm preeclampsia (340–366 weeks), delaying delivery may facilitate cervical

ripening and vaginal delivery [372], but substantial perinatal benefits Paclitaxel order are not anticipated and there are concerns about the vulnerability of the fetal brain to injury at this time [373]. We await data from two RCTs (HYPITAT-II, www.studies-obsgyn.nl;

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789919). In antihypertensive comparison RCTs near or at term, pregnancy prolongation was associated with a Caesarean delivery rate of ∼70% [374], [375], [376], [377] and [378], with little or no information about pregnancy prolongation or other maternal or perinatal outcomes. With term preeclamspia (370–420 weeks) labour induction is indicated to reduce poor maternal outcome (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45–0.82) [379]. This policy has a favourable impact on health-related quality of life [380]. Women with term gestational hypertension probably benefit from labour induction by decreasing poor maternal outcome (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59, 0.86, preeclampsia and gestational hypertension data combined)

[379]. Among women with uncomplicated pre-existing hypertension, delivery at 380–396 weeks Small Molecule Compound Library appears out to optimize the trade-off between the risk of adverse fetal (stillbirth) or maternal complications (superimposed preeclampsia and abruption) that increase with gestational age, and neonatal mortality and morbidity that decreases in incidence with gestational age [381]. Trial data are needed. We were unable to identify data on the cost-effectiveness of labour induction for women with a HDP before 340 weeks. For women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia near term (340–366 weeks), a policy of labour induction is cost-effective based on neonatal and maternal morbidity, based on controlled retrospective data; labour induction cost CAD$299 more but was associated with better quality of life [www.nice.org.uk/guidance] [382]. For women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at ⩾370 weeks, labour induction is cost-saving (by CAD$1,065) due to less antepartum resource use [383]. 1. For women with any HDP, vaginal delivery should be considered unless a Caesarean delivery is required for the usual obstetric indications (II-2B; Low/Strong). All women with a HDP should be considered for labour induction. Choosing the mode of delivery should consider both the gestational age and fetal status.

Globally, disease in children is caused predominantly by group A

Globally, disease in children is caused predominantly by group A [11]. The virus is transmitted by the faeco-oral route; from person to person directly or via contaminated fomites, food or water [12]. Peak incidence of clinical disease is 6–24 months of age [13]. Following an incubation period of 1–3 days, it classically KPT-330 nmr presents with sudden onset of vomiting and fever with profuse watery diarrhoea. Symptoms usually last 2–7 days (average 5 days) [12]. Patterns of immunity

are relatively complex: maternal antibodies confer some protection for newborns, neonatal infection is believed to offer protection against disease, and previous infections progressively reduce a child’s risk of rotavirus infection and disease [14]. Based on the findings of Velazquez et al., children with 1, 2 or 3 previous rotavirus infections have 0.62, 0.40 and 0.34 the risk of rotavirus disease relative to children who have no previous infections [15]. We developed a deterministic age-structured dynamic model of rotavirus transmission which included degrees of susceptibility to re-infection in keeping with known patterns of immunity to rotavirus infections. The full model is illustrated by the flow diagram in Fig. 1 with parameters as defined in Table 1. Full model equations are described

in Appendix A. We incorporated the key features of rotavirus epidemiology in the following ways. Newborn infants of immune mothers were protected by maternal antibodies [16]. Therefore, 3-Methyladenine datasheet we assumed that all children were immune at birth and entered a maternally protected class. This immunity waned at a constant rate with a mean duration of 3 months (1/μ), after which individuals moved into the first susceptible class. Individuals in all susceptible classes could be infected at a rate λ, and they recovered from infection at a rate γ. From the literature we have also concluded that at least three re-infections (four susceptible classes) should be distinguished

[15]. The risk of an exposed individual developing an infection (α1–3) and the proportion of individuals assumed to become immune after each infection (1 − α1–3) varied depending on the number of previous infections. We assumed that the risk of infection was 62% after one infection, 65% (=0.40/0.62) after two and 85% (=0.34/0.40) after three, based on the findings of Velazquez et al. [15] and supported by others [17] and [18]. After four infections, all individuals became immune and entered the recovered class. Also based on Velazquez et al. [15], we assumed that 47% of first, 25% of second, 32% of third and 20% of fourth infections were symptomatic. Once individuals entered the recovered class, they were assumed to be temporarily but completely immune to re-infection. This immunity waned at a rate (ω) and individuals then entered the fourth susceptible class from which they could be re-infected at a rate λ.

All statistical calculations were performed using Stata version 8

All statistical calculations were performed using Stata version 8.0 (College Station, Texas, Stata Corporation, 2003). Of the original sample of 1670 physicians, 120 were ineligible because they were retired or no longer in clinical practice. The final sample size included 1550 physicians, of which 1079 responded (overall response rate: 69.6%). Responders and non-responders were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics (location, gender, and age; p > 0.05). Most responding physicians were from Rome (73.8% of responders vs. 76.9% of non-responders) and male (56.2% of responders vs. 58.9% of non-responders), with a mean age of 50.7 (± 11.5) years (50.0 years selleck chemicals for non-responders).

The demographic characteristics of the sample were similar to those of all AZD6244 cost Italian physicians, as 60.6% of the members of the National Board of Physicians are male and have a similar age distribution ( ENPAM, 2012). Other demographics,

professional and personal characteristics of the responding physicians are listed in Table 1. Italian physicians’ knowledge of predictive genetic testing for cancer appeared adequate in terms of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing, although knowledge of APC testing was lacking [ Table 2(A)]. Almost half of the sample (42.8%) answered all three questions about BRCA1/2 testing correctly. This knowledge was improved if physicians were exposed to cancer genetic testing during graduate or postgraduate training, and with the increase in the amount of time dedicated to continuing medical education. Oxygenase Female physicians were more likely to have adequate knowledge about BRCA1/2 testing, and this knowledge increased if genetic testing laboratories were located in the same geographical area as the physicians’ workplace (Model 1 in Table 3). Only 16.9% of physicians provided correct answers to all three questions about APC testing. This knowledge, as in the previous case, increased with exposure to cancer genetic testing during graduate and post-graduate training and with the amount of time dedicated to

continuing medical education (Model 2 in Table 3). Physicians’ knowledge was satisfactory on the penetrance of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, but not regarding the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer. Most physicians knew that the absolute risk of developing breast cancer in the presence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is 40–80%, but less than one third recognized that the percentage of breast cancer cases associated with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is 1–10% [ Table 2(B)]. By contrast, knowledge concerning inherited forms of colorectal cancer was inadequate, as none of the surveyed physicians knew that the percentage of colorectal cancer cases associated with APC mutations is less than 5%, and only a small proportion of physicians recognized that the absolute risk of developing cancer in the presence of APC mutations is 100% [ Table 2(B)]. Attitudes toward predictive genetic testing for breast and colorectal cancer were quite heterogeneous (Table 4).

1) The oral fluid assay, using a modified TRFIA to detect specif

1). The oral fluid assay, using a modified TRFIA to detect specific VZV-IgG antibody, was chosen because it avoids any invasive procedure to collect blood and is more likely to be acceptable to parents and adolescents, thus improving study response rates. A recently proposed change to the UK adolescent vaccination programme would

mean that a group C meningococcal booster vaccine may be offered with the Td/IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, polio) booster to those aged 13–14 [34], and an adolescent varicella vaccination programme could be given at the same time. The average age of participants in this study was 13 years, and the study population intentionally reflects ethnic diversity in the UK adolescent general population through the inclusion of two schools in South London to increase the number of non-white respondents. Among all study respondents providing an oral fluid sample, 82% tested positive for VZV-IgG, which reflects the likely prevalence in the UK for this age group. www.selleckchem.com/products/fg-4592.html [2] Our study, however, did not aim to provide population prevalence estimates for the different chickenpox history responses because it was not possible to assess how accurately respondents reflect the population. For example, parents of adolescents with negative or uncertain histories may have been more likely to participate given the

provision of free vaccine to those without VZV-IgG antibodies. The proportion with different histories may also have been affected by changing the question about chickenpox selleckchem history at the end of the study to boost the number of negative and uncertain responses, and the small token of appreciation offered. Finally, it is difficult to foresee how parents’ answers might be influenced by the prospect of their child actually receiving a vaccine in the context of a national adolescent vaccination programme. We show that asking parents to report their child’s chickenpox

history can significantly discriminate between adolescents who are immune and susceptible to varicella infection. These data will be used to determine by modelling whether reported history, with or without oral fluid testing in those with negative or uncertain history, is sufficiently discriminatory found to underpin a cost-effective varicella vaccination programme that will protect susceptibles against chickenpox in the UK. Ethical approval was granted by the London Harrow National Research Ethics Service (11/LO/1916). The field and laboratory work for this study were supported by a grant from the DH Research and Development Directorate, grant number 039/0031. The views expressed in the publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health, England. Nigel Field is supported by a NIHR Academic Clinical Lectureship. The funding sources had no role in data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the report. The study was designed and implemented by NF, GA, PW, NA, AJvH, KEB and EM, with EM as the Chief Investigator.

In order to assess pp65-reactivity, human CD3+CD8+ T cells detect

In order to assess pp65-reactivity, human CD3+CD8+ T cells detectable in the PBL were analyzed by tetramer staining. The frequencies of pp65-specific circulating CD3+CD8+ T cells were approximately eight-fold higher in mice preconditioned with SmyleDC/pp65 or SmartDC/pp65 as compared to control mice (Fig. 8b). Human CD3+CD8+ T cells were isolated from the spleen by FACS sorting and used in IFN-γ ELISPOT

assay. The human T cells were pulsed with pp65 peptide pool or with a mixture of recall antigenic peptides. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the engraftment and expansion of functional human CD3+CD8+ T cells in the spleen (Fig. 8c). Mice injected with SmyleDC/pp65 showed higher frequencies of CD8+ T

cells producing IFN-γ than mice pre-conditioned with SmartDC/pp65. XL184 solubility dmso Cytomegalovirus is a relevant issue AZD6244 in stem cell transplantation, particularly because immune suppressed transplanted patients do not respond well to vaccinations, underscoring the need for novel cell-based therapies. With respect to existing DC vaccination therapies, they are very cost intensive, poorly viable in vivo, scarcely bio-distribute to lymphatic tissues and are far away from a standardized cellular product for larger clinical trials [29]. We have previously demonstrated in homologous and humanized mouse models that SmartDCs generated with IC-LV are significantly more viable in vivo (several weeks) than conventional DCs (1–2 days) and immunization with SmartDCs result into massive recruitment and expansion of antigen-reactive T cells in lymph nodes or in the vaccination site [5], [6] and [10].

Spilucel-T, the only FDA approved and marketed cell therapy product, is not a highly stable product and therefore has to be prepared fresh for three rounds of infusion. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of up-scaling SmartDC production using GMP-compatible methods, which was achieved in 28 h of ex vivo cell manipulation and the cell product could be conveniently cryopreserved without precluding its potency [7]. Although novel in the field of immunotherapy, lentiviral vectors have now lined up for several clinical Calpain trials of human gene therapy (for hematopoieitic, metabolic and neurologic disorders), and large scale GMP production is developing in Europe and in the United States [30] and [31]. Thus, innovative genetically modified iDCs may become a practical and valuable option for immunotherapy of immune-compromised transplanted patients at risk of CMV infection, since besides its reduced time of ex vivo manipulation, high viability in vivo and antigenic properties, its 2–3 weeks production of cytokine stimuli may improve the immunization milieu and accelerate the homeostatic immune reconstitution of human T cells.

In adjusted analyses, models were adjusted for all other predicto

In adjusted analyses, models were adjusted for all other predictor variables. Robust standard errors were used to account for clustering by PCT. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A complete case

analysis was carried out for each regression model; this was considered reasonable because analysis of missing observations for predictor variables indicated that missingness was not associated with outcome variables. Potential modification of the main effects by child’s overweight category, child’s age, or PF-02341066 price PCT was assessed by the inclusion of interaction terms. All analyses were carried out using Stata version 12 (College Station, TX: StataCorp). Table 1 shows the study sample characteristics. Of the 3397 parents who responded to the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 18.9%), 579 (17.0% of respondents) had children who were classified as overweight or obese. Of these, 202 parents that responded at baseline and find more one month follow-up (34.9% of baseline sample) formed the sample for analysis of intention to change; 285 parents that responded at baseline and to at least one of the follow-up questionnaires (49.2% of baseline) formed the sample for analysis of behaviour change; 94% of parents in the sample recalled receiving the feedback letter.

At one month follow-up, 38.2% of parents of overweight children identified their child as overweight, and 28.7% recognised health risks associated with their child’s weight. Most parents (72.1%, n = 145) reported an intention to change health-related behaviours at one month; of these, 32 parents (22%) had not reported

an intention at baseline. In adjusted analyses (Table 2), intention to change behaviour was positively associated with parental recognition of child overweight status (odds ratio OR 11.20, 95% confidence interval CI 4.49, 27.93). Positive associations with parental recognition of health risks, child age and ethnicity that were observed in unadjusted analyses CYTH4 were attenuated in the adjusted model. Other a priori predictor variables were not associated with intention. Just over half (54.7%, n = 156 out of 285) of parents reported a positive change in health-related behaviours after receiving feedback about their child’s weight; 39.5% reported an improvement in diet, 14.0% an improvement in physical activity, 25.3% an improvement in screen-time, and 23.3% a positive change in service use. A third of parents (33.7%, n = 96) made changes to just one type of behaviour, 15.4% made changes to two behaviours, 6.0% to three, and 0.4% to all four. In adjusted analyses (Table 3), child’s school year was positively associated with behaviour change after NCMP feedback, with parents of children aged 10–11 more likely to report behaviour change than parents of children aged 4–5 (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1,35, 2.70).