Data collection ended when patients were ready for surgery, or if ephedrine was given to increase mean arterial pressure.\n\nMain Results: 21 patients had hypotension. Baseline blood pressure variability low-frequency band power (BPV LF) >8 mmHg(2) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reduction >= 5% had high sensitivity (0.73 and 0.90, respectively) and specificity (0.78 and 0.64, respectively), and were significantly associated with the development of hypotension. Conclusions: Only NIRS and BPV Napabucasin LF Could significantly predict hypotension
among the elderly. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Cessation of traditional mowing management has been the main threat to fen biodiversity for many decades; shrubs and trees expand and target plant and animal species decline. In Biebrza National Park (BNP), the EU’s HKI-272 largest conservation area of alkaline fens, abandonment has affected more than 300 km(2). To combat unwanted succession, tracked mowers were developed based on snow grooming vehicles and are increasingly used in BNP and some other
European fens. While effects on bird populations seemed promising, the impact on botanical diversity remained yet unknown. We assessed the effects of this management on vegetation by comparing 12 pairs of mown and unmown plots (percentage cover recorded from 4 m(2) for all species and 25 m(2) for rare species) spread over several km(2). We found that tracked vehicles suppressed some species, this website which are likely to facilitate others by providing shelters above groundwater level (hummock mosses, tussock sedges and shrubs) and enhanced species with effective clonal spread
and high specific leaf area. An even stronger increase was observed in forbs, which share effective clonal spread and flood tolerance (high Ellenberg F value). Analysis of functional diversity indices based on all measured traits showed a decrease of functional divergence due to mowing (indicating convergence of traits) and no response of functional richness, evenness and functional dispersion. Mowing has also decreased the number of rare species. We associate these changes with the reduction of micro-topography by caterpillar tracks. Tracked mowers should therefore be avoided in those fens, in which microtopography contributes to unique botanical diversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Object. Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population.\n\nMethods. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution.\n\nResults.
Reperfusion of an ischemic heart maybe harmful, but it is an essential process for myocardial survival. One of the major adverse consequences of reperfusion is the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In the present study, we investigated the possible connection between autophagy and VF. Isolated mouse hearts
Angiogenesis inhibitor were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and divided into two groups based on the development of VF at the beginning of reperfusion. Western blot analysis was conducted for autophagy-associated proteins LC3B, ATG-5, ATG-7, ATG-12, Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 proteins. Significantly higher level of Beclin-1 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio (both definitive autophagy biomarkers) was observed in the fibrillated myocardium, versus tissue from the nonfibrillated hearts. Interestingly, although Bcl-2 is a major regulator of Beclin-1, level of this protein was not significantly altered in tissue from fibrillated, versus non-fibrillated hearts. Moreover, Atg7 expression showed a trend, albeit nonsignificant, towards elevation Nutlin-3 mouse in fibrillated versus non-fibrillated hearts. Results of the
present investigation demonstrate a possible link between VF and autophagy. Studies by authors of this report to evaluate potential etiologic relationships between the two processes are ongoing.”
“A new class of photonucleases, 1-aryl/heteroaryl-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalines (4) was synthesized in a facile and efficient manner via copper(II) chloride mediated oxidative intramolecular cyclization of 2-(arylidenehydrazino)-3-substituted-quinoxalines (3). DNA cleavage potency of compounds 4a-d (40 mu g each) was quantitatively evaluated on supercoiled plasmid Phi X174 under UV irradiation (312 nm, 15 W) without any additive. Compound 4c was found to be the most efficient DNA photocleaver which had converted supercoiled
www.selleckchem.com/products/YM155.html DNA (form I) into the relaxed DNA (form II) at 30 jig and the DNA photocleavage activity increases with increase in concentration of 4c. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Raltegravir (RAL) constitutes the first available integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) available in clinical practice. Three independent pathways have been described to confer resistance to RAL. Secondary mutations with little effect on INSTI susceptibility and additional substitutions with an uncertain role have also been described especially in HIV-1 non-B variants. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of primary, secondary, and additional resistance mutations to INSTIs in patients naive to RAL or elvitegravir (EGV) carrying different HIV-1 variants. Results: A total of 83 patients infected by B HIV-1 subtype (64%) or non-B HIV-1 variants (36%) were evaluated. No primary mutations to RAL or EGV were found in the integrase sequences analyzed. Secondary mutations were detected in only 5 patients.
(C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription of ARO9 and ARO10 genes, involved in the catabolism of aromatic amino acids, is activated by Aro80 transcription factor in response to aromatic amino acids. Here we show that the transcription of ARO9 and ARO10 is also induced by heat shock in an Aro80-dependent manner. However, heat shock-related signaling pathways including PKA, PKC, and HOG pathways are not involved
in the heat shock activation of Aro80. We elucidate that heat-induced increase in aromatic amino acid influx can lead to the inducer-dependent activation of Aro80 upon heat shock. Known aromatic amino acid permeases play an insignificant role in the heat-induced expression of ARO9 and ARO10, suggesting that an increase in plasma membrane fluidity might be Selleck FK506 responsible for the influx of aromatic amino acids during heat shock stress. (C) 2013 Elsevier PRIMA-1MET Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In the present study, we employ a longitudinal design and a generalizability framework to examine the sources of variance in the diurnal rhythm of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). The sample consisted of 122 first-year law students (55% male, mean age = 23.9 years), who collected five saliva samples on each of three consecutive days at each of five data collection waves. In total, over 6900 saliva samples
were collected, which allowed us to examine the properties of diurnal variation in sAA in great detail. Selleck KPT-8602 Systematic individual differences accounted for 15-29% of the variability in the awakening response and diurnal slope, and for 61-65% of the variation in overall daily levels (i.e., diurnal mean, area under the curve with respect to ground [AUCg]). Although less than 1% of the variation was due to differences between waves and between days, the generalizability analyses revealed that between
16% and 17% of the variance in the diurnal mean, slope and AUCg is due to person by wave interactions, indicating that individuals vary in their biological sensitivity to environmental influences. In sum, this study documents sufficient stability and variation in diurnal sAA to warrant future studies on the origins and consequences of alterations in the diurnal rhythm of sAA worthwhile, and proposes guidelines on obtaining reliable measures. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Downregulation of anterior pituitary GnRH-receptors by application of a slow release GnRH-implant offers an effective and reversible alternative to surgical castration of the male dog.\n\nAim of the present study was to test the efficacy and the underlying mechanisms of a new non-biodegradable control led-release device implant (Gonazon (R), Intervet, containing 18.5 mg of the GnRH-agonist Azagly-Nafarelin). Eight male beagle dogs were implanted s.c. at the para-umbilical region. In four dogs implant removal was after 180 days (group 1), in the other four dogs after 365 days (group 2).
We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations.\n\nMethods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;
Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income.\n\nResults: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all PXD101 sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest in the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census
tract, the disparity across socio economic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2)
than in Canada (IRR https://www.selleckchem.com/products/emricasan-idn-6556-pf-03491390.html 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction).\n\nInterpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, GSK461364 although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association be tween socio economic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention.”
“Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 30 degrees C) protects the brain from hypoxic injury. However, TH may potentiate the occurrence of lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF), although the mechanism remains unclear. The present study explored the hypothesis that TH enhances wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, facilitates pacing-induced spatially discordant alternans (SDA), and increases the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF\n\nMethods and Results: Using an optical mapping system, epicardial activations of VF were studied in 7 Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts at baseline (37 degrees C), TH (30 degrees C), and rewarming (37 degrees C). Action potential duration (APD)/conduction velocity (CV) restitution and APD alternans (n=6 hearts) were determined by S1 pacing at these 3 stages.
001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting
earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during CP-456773 price S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of
morbidity https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor
cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Erlotinib-Hydrochloride.html the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.
The statins are extensively metabolized by the CYP system and therefore drug-drug interactions between the statins and antiretroviral therapy must be considered when treating HIV or antiretroviral drug-induced dyslipidemia.”
“The present study examined upper and lower limb coordination during lower limb asymmetry in a split-belt
walking paradigm. Eleven healthy individuals walked on a split-belt treadmill with 4 different speed ratios (2:2, 2:4, 2:6 and 2:8 km/h) and the left belt fixed at 2 km/h. Spatial (upper and lower limb movement amplitudes) and temporal (correlations between trajectories) aspects of limb movement were analyzed. Results showed that while amplitudes of the right lower limb increased and Epoxomicin left lower limb decreased with increasing asymmetry, both upper limb amplitudes increased. Correlations between diagonal upper/lower limb trajectories increased as right belt speed became faster, suggesting increasing cross-body matching regardless of side. As the treadmill asymmetry increased, ipsilateral lower/upper limbs became more out of phase suggesting a more precise gait pattern to regulate timing between limbs. The upper limbs reached maximum horizontal displacement before the lower limbs
except between the right upper limb/left lower limb for asymmetrical belt speeds. From these results, it appears Dinaciclib price the faster moving lower limb drives the motion of both upper limbs. These changes are most likely due to neural mechanisms in which upper and lower limb CPGs regulate full body movement and maintain the rhythmic locomotor pattern. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The present study was undertaken to investigate the feeding Rubus coreanus Miguel byproducts (RCMB) on the performance, blood composition
and hormone concentrations of crossbred chicks. Day-old male crossbred chicks (384) were allocated to four RCMB (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0%) level in the diets with six replication having 64 chicks in each treatment. Four dietary energy (3,000, 3,100, 3,100 and 3,200 kcal kg(-1) ME) and CP (22, 21, 19 and 17%) levels were provided to the starting (0-2 weeks), growing (3-5 weeks), growing-finishing (6-8 weeks) and finishing (9-10 weeks) period. No significant performances were observed during the starting and growing periods but weight gain and feed intake Kinase Inhibitor Library price were increased in the growing-finishing and finishing period. Thus the total weight gain and feed intake were significantly higher in RCMB treatment group as compared to those of the control (p<0.05), except feed conversion. Triglycerides were significantly lower in birds fed 1.0% RCMB compared to those in the controls and in the 0.25% RCMB fed birds (p<0.05). Total protein concentrations were not different among the treatments, but albumin concentration was increased in the 1.0% RCMB treatment compared to those of the other treatments (p<0.05). The melatonin, growth hormone and testosterone concentration was increased significantly (p<0.
\n\nPE has prevalence rates of 20-30%. PE may be classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary). Diagnosis is based on medical and sexual history assessing intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, perceived control, distress, and interpersonal difficulty related to the ejaculatory dysfunction. Physical examination and laboratory testing may be needed in selected
patients only.\n\nPharmacotherapy is the basis of treatment in lifelong PE, including daily dosing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and topical anaesthetics. Dapoxetine is the only drug approved for the on-demand treatment of PE in Europe. Behavioural techniques may be efficacious
as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacotherapy. Recurrence is likely to occur after treatment withdrawal.\n\nConclusions: These Selleckchem AR-13324 A 769662 EAU guidelines summarise the present information on ED and PE. The extended version of the guidelines is available at the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/nc/professionalresources/guidelines/online/). (C) 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“The hydrodealkylation of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB) was investigated on partially reduced Ni-Al mixed oxide catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method. The catalytic LDN-193189 research buy performances of these Ni-Al mixed oxides were considerably influenced by different factors, such as the molar ratio of Ni/Al, calcination temperature of the catalysts, etc. The sample with a Ni/Al molar ratio of 1:8 calcined at 500 degrees C (denoted as NiAl(8)-500) showed the highest activity and total selectivity to lighter aromatics with a 62.3% conversion and a 60.2% selectivity to xylene. Characterization results showed that the unreduced NiAl(8)-500 catalyst mainly consisted of pseudo-spinel like solid solution (NiAl(2)O(4)), and could produce
monodispersed nickel atoms (Ni(0)), which are closely associated with alumina sites (Lewis acid) upon reduction. We propose that the relatively high hydrodealkylation activity of the NiAl(8)-500 catalyst could be mainly assigned to the presence of a number of neighboring metallic Ni(0) atoms and Lewis acidic sites. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A total of 1,023 environmental surfaces were sampled from 45 rooms with patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) before terminal room cleaning. Colonized patients had higher median total target colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA or VRE than did infected patients (median, 25 CFU [interquartile range, 0-106 CFU] vs 0 CFU [interquartile range, 0-29 CFU]; P = .033).
8 +/- 5.2; P < 0.05). Evaluation of the total FSFI scores revealed that obese women without PCOS had below-normal sexual function scores, whereas both obese and nonobese women with PCOS had borderline scores compared to controls, who had normal FSFI findings. No association was observed
between body mass index, the presence of PCOS, testosterone level, and FSFI score. Conclusions. The obese women in our sample were at a higher risk for sexual dysfunction and lower FSFI scores, and women with PCOS had borderline FSFI values, regardless of their obesity status. Based on this result, larger studies using the methods described in this pilot study are warranted to elucidate OSI906 if obesity can impair sexual function in PCOS women. Ferraresi
U0126 SR, Lara LAS, Reis RM, and Rosa e Silva ACJS. Changes in sexual function among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study. J Sex Med 2013;10:467-473.”
“We sought to explore the immediate clinical and angiographic results of the Titan(A (R)) stent implantation in diabetic patients, as well as the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 6-month follow-up. We enrolled 156 consecutive diabetic patients admitted to undergo percutaneous intervention for at least one significant (50%) coronary lesion. All lesions were treated with the Titan(A (R)) stent implantation according to the contemporary interventional techniques. Patients were prospectively followed-up for at least 6 months. The primary endpoint was MACE at 6-month follow-up [cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR)]. Secondary endpoints included angiographic
and clinical procedural success, in-hospital MACE, TLR at 6-month follow-up, and stent thrombosis. The mean age was 66.7 MK-8776 Cell Cycle inhibitor +/- A 9.6 years, (68.4% males). A total of 197 Titan(A (R)) stents were implanted in 163 lesions. Direct stenting was performed in 45.2% of the cases. The mean stent diameter was 3.1 +/- A 0.61 mm, and the mean length was 18.0 +/- A 8.9 mm. Average stent deployment pressure was 13.9 +/- A 4.2 bars. Angiographic procedural success was achieved in 154 (98.7%) cases, and clinical procedural success was achieved in 153 (98.1%) cases. One patient developed in-hospital non-Q-wave MI following the procedure. Clinical follow-up was completed in 155 (99.4%) patients. Three patients (1.9%) died of a cardiac or unknown cause, and two (1.3%) developed MI. TLR was performed in 11 patients (7.1%). Cumulative MACE at 6-month follow-up occurred in 16 (10.3%) patients. No patient suffered stent thrombosis. Titan(A (R)) stent implantation in diabetic patients achieves an excellent immediate clinical and angiographic outcome, with a low incidence of MACE at mid-term follow-up.”
“Soil is one of the major habitats of bacteria and fungi. In this arena their interactions are part of a communication network that keeps microhabitats in balance.
Results: Demographic profile and presentation were similar in all groups. One case each had seromuscular intestinal injury in the iliac group (P = .668), splenic injury in the lumbar group, and liver injury in the subcostal group (P = .167). In the iliac group there was 1 patient with hematoma (P = .668), whereas seroma was seen in 1 lumbar group patient and 2 iliac GSK2118436 in vitro group patients (P = .518). Persistent cough impulse was seen in 1 case each in the iliac and lumbar groups (P = .593). One case in the iliac group recurred after primary surgery (P = .668). Conclusions: NMVHs have a similar spectrum of difficulty
and complication profile as those of laparoscopic MVH repairs. Laparoscopic repair of a non-midline hernia is technically challenging but definitely feasible. The incidence of complications and recurrence rate might be more than those for MVHs, but its actual validation needs a much larger comparative study having a longer follow-up.”
“Glioblastoma is a highly-aggressive and rapidly-lethal tumor characterized by resistance to therapy. Although data on multiple genes, proteins, and pathways are available, the key challenge is deciphering this information and identifying selleck chemicals central molecular targets. Therapeutically targeting individual
molecules is often unsuccessful due to the presence of compensatory and redundant pathways, and crosstalk. A systems biology approach that involves a hierarchical gene group networks analysis can delineate the coherent functions of different disease mediators. Here, we report an integrative networks-based analysis to identify a system of coherent gene modules in primary and secondary glioblastoma. Our study revealed a hierarchical transcriptional control of genes in these modules. We elucidated those modules responsible BI 2536 mw for conversion of the glioma-associated microglia/macrophages into glioma-supportive, immunosuppressive cells. Further, we identified clusters comprising mediators of angiogenesis, proliferation, and cell death for both primary and secondary glioblastomas. Data obtained for these clusters point to a possible role of transcription regulators that function
as the gene modules mediators in glioblastoma pathogenesis. We elucidated a set of possible transcription regulators that can be targeted to affect the selected gene clusters at specific levels for glioblastoma. Our innovative approach to construct informative disease models may hold the key to successful management of complex diseases including glioblastoma and other cancers.”
“Ileal lesions of patients with Crohn’s disease are colonized by adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) bacteria that are able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), to replicate within macrophages, and to form biofilm. Clinical observations showed that bacterial biofilms were associated with the mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients.
“Hexavalent chromium is a human respiratory carcinogen that undergoes intracellular activation in vivo primarily via reduction with ascorbate. Replication of Cr-adducted DNA triggers mismatch repair that generates toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as secondary lesions. Here, we examined the intranuclear distribution of chromate-induced breaks and a central DSB signaling branch targeting histone H2AX. Using ascorbate-restored cells (H460 human lung epithelial
cells, normal human lung and normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)), we found that Cr(VI) produced a typical DSB-associated spectrum of H2AX modifications, including its Ser139-phosphorylated (known as gamma H2AX) and mono- and diubiquitinated forms. However, whereas canonical DSB signaling relies on ATM, the formation of gamma H2AX and its ubiquitinated products by Cr(VI) was dependent on ATR kinase. SC79 Adavosertib mouse Based on the established mode of ATR activation, this suggests that Cr-induced DSB are not blunt-ended and likely contain single-stranded tails. Confocal imaging with markers of active and inactive chromatin revealed a selective formation of Cr-induced DSB in euchromatin of mouse and
human cells. In contrast to DSB, Cr-DNA adducts were produced in both types of chromatin. The euchromatin targeting of Cr-induced DSB makes these lesions particularly dangerous by increasing the probability of deleting active tumor suppressors and producing oncogenic translocations. Accumulation of transcription-inhibiting
CA4P ubiquitinated forms of gamma H2AX in euchromatin is expected to contribute to the ability of Cr(VI) to suppress upregulation of inducible genes.”
“We investigated whether, during maximal exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow is as high as during resting hyperpnoea at the same work of breathing. We hypothesized that during exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow would be limited by competition from the locomotor muscles. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle perfusion were measured simultaneously in ten trained cyclists by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Measurements were made at several exercise intensities up to maximal (WRmax) and subsequently during resting isocapnic hyperpnoea at minute ventilation levels up to those at WRmax. During resting hyperpnoea, intercostal muscle blood flow increased linearly with the work of breathing (R-2 = 0.94) to 73.0 +/- 8.8 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) at the ventilation seen at WRmax (work of breathing similar to 550-600 J min(-1)), but during exercise it peaked at 80% WRmax (53.4 +/- 10.3 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1)), significantly falling to 24.7 +/- 5.3 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) at WRmax. At maximal ventilation intercostal muscle vascular conductance was significantly lower during exercise (0.22 +/- 0.