0–11 0, are defined as – alkalophilic 2 The temperature range of

0–11.0, are defined as – alkalophilic. 2 The temperature range of the organism was 25–45 °C with the optimum temperature of GSI-IX in vitro 30 °C and it could tolerate NaCl up to 10%. It was negative towards citrate utilization, indole test, MR-VP tests, H2S production, urea hydrolysis and could reduce nitrate weakly. The strain was oxidase and catalase positive, capable of hydrolyzing starch, casein and liquefaction of gelatin. Acid production from carbohydrates like glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, xylose, mannitol and maltose was negative. The overall biochemical and physiological characteristics

indicate that strain 2b is an alkaliphilic Bacillus belonging to the species agaradhaerens. The organism identified as B. agaradhaerens was further confirmed by Microbial Type Culture Collection Center and Gene Bank (MTCC), Institute of Microbial Technology, (IMTECH), Chandigarh, India and deposited under Accession number MTCC 9416. Many scientists have studied B. agaradhaerens. 1 Nielsen 1 has made considerable revisions of the classification of alkalophilic Bacillus species according to the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterizations and has proposed B. agaradhaerens as one out of the nine new species of alkalophilic Ku-0059436 chemical structure Bacillus. To investigate the taxonomic position of the alkaliphilic Bacillus strain, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was

performed. The genotypic characterization of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate confirmed that it was B. agaradhaerens.

After the Oxymatrine sequence characterization, the sequence was submitted to NCBI under the name B. agaradhaerens strain nandiniphanse5. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accession number of the sequence deposited in GenBank Database is JN703504.1. Sequences showing a relevant degree of similarity were imported into the CLUSTAL W program16 and multiple sequence alignment was performed. Alignment of 16S rRNA partial gene sequence of different strains of B. agaradhaerens species is shown in Fig. 1. Phylogenetic tree was constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences of members of genus Bacillus. In the neighbour-joining tree, the sequences form a distinct lineage, with alkaliphilic Bacillus species as the closest relatives. Phylogenetic construction of B. agaradhaerens strain nandiniphanse5 against other species of Bacillus is shown in Fig. 2. The dataset B. agaradhaerens strain nandiniphanse5 consisted of 770 bp (100%) is parsimony informative. The matrix was competently and manually aligned. Coding gaps as binary characters, missing data had no affect on the topology and very affect on branch support. The 100% bootstrap consensus tree is shown ( Fig. 2). To characterize the B. agaradhaerens strain further, a phylogenetic tree, based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, showing the relationships of the identified alkaliphilic bacterium B. agaradhaerens strain nandiniphanse5 and the type strains of the same species, was constructed ( Fig. 3).

Economization of any industrial process depends on the cost of en

Economization of any industrial process depends on the cost of enzyme. The optimization of process parameters plays a critical role in reducing the cost of enzyme production and is usually performed by varying the levels of one independent parameter, keeping other parameters constant. Statistical experimental designs provide an efficient approach to help determine the best conditions for maximizing enzyme production which in turn leads to process optimization. Plackett–Burman design is one such method that has been frequently used for screening multiple factors at a time. Optimization of media components for the production of laccase from fungi using response surface methodology

approach has been reported. 12 The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of CP 673451 indigenously isolated Coriolus sp. for laccase production in SSF. The effects of RH, pH, gram flour and incubation time on the SSF process was investigated and optimized using statistical method. Indigenously isolated white rot basidiomycete Coriolus sp. was used in the present study for laccase production. The organism was maintained on slant culture prepared by using potato dextrose agar medium. The strains were sub-cultured periodically and fresh cultures (7 days at 30 ± 2 °C) were prepared and used for each experiment as inoculum. Laccase production by Coriolus selleck sp. was screened using composite

selective Edoxaban media plates. 13 Laccase activity was visualized on plates as reddish brown zones in medium. The production of laccase was carried out in flask containing 100 ml of production medium.14 Fungal spore suspension from actively growing (7 days) slants was used as inoculum to inoculate the 100 ml production medium. Flasks were further incubated with shaking at 120 rpm at 30 °C. Sampling was done at regular intervals for fungal growth and laccase activity. Wheat bran (5 g) in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask was autoclaved. Buffer solutions of pH 5.0 (10 mM Sodium-acetate buffer) and pH

10.0 (10 mM Carbonate–bicarbonate buffer) were used as moistening medium and an appropriate amount of sterile buffer solution was added to flask containing wheat bran, to adjust desired RH according to designed matrix. RH was determined using hygrometer. Five agar plugs (0.8 mm in diameter) cut from actively growing fungal mycelium were used as inoculum. The contents of the flask were mixed thoroughly and incubated at 30 °C in static condition for different time intervals (10 and 20 days). After desired interval, contents of each flask were sampled for laccase assay. The optimization of laccase production in SSF was carried out with response surface methodology using MINITAB® 15 (Minitab Inc., PA, USA). Plackett–Burman design was applied to study the significant variables responsible for laccase production.

Le handicap lié à la sévérité de la BPCO doit aussi être évalué,

Le handicap lié à la sévérité de la BPCO doit aussi être évalué, notamment l’impact sur les activités sociales. Plusieurs auto-questionnaires simples et courts peuvent contribuer à l’évaluation GDC-0199 chemical structure du retentissement global de la maladie. Deux ont fait l’objet d’une validation internationale incluant la France :

le questionnaire CAT (COPD Assessment test), qui a même fait l’objet d’une validation spécifique en langue française [7], et le CCQ (Clinical COPD Questionnaire). Tous deux sont intégrés dans les recommandations internationales GOLD (Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease) sur la prise en charge de la BPCO [8]. Enfin, le nombre d’exacerbations par an, c’est-à-dire les périodes d’aggravation aiguë des symptômes, non systématiquement d’origine infectieuse, qui ont justifié une intervention médicale, doit être pris en compte. Selon l’étude ECLIPSE, la fréquence annuelle des exacerbations est stable sur plusieurs années chez un même patient ; environ un quart des patients ne fait aucune exacerbation de BPCO en trois ans mais un quart en fait au moins quatre

sur cette même période LDN-193189 chemical structure [9]. Ce dernier quart correspond aux patients considérés comme des « exacerbateurs » fréquents. Le risque d’exacerbation est d’autant plus élevé que le VEMS est diminué et qu’il existe des symptômes de reflux gastro-œsophagien [9] and [10]. L’évaluation de la sévérité de la BPCO selon le niveau d’obstruction bronchique, la dyspnée et/ou le retentissement global de la maladie (score CAT),

et la fréquence des exacerbations a conduit à un nouveau classement des patients selon quatre catégories dans les recommandations internationales GOLD en 2011 [8]. Ce classement et sa déclinaison en stratégies thérapeutiques n’ont pas été entérinés par la SPLF [11] et la HAS, et ne seront pas décrits dans cet article. Outre l’atteinte respiratoire, la BPCO peut avoir des conséquences systémiques ayant un impact pronostique comme la dénutrition, l’atteinte musculaire, un tuclazepam syndrome anxiodépressif avec un retentissement sur la tolérance à l’effort et la qualité de vie. Ainsi, l’index de BODE qui prend en compte l’obstruction bronchique avec le VEMS, la capacité d’exercice (test de marche de six minutes), les symptômes avec le score de dyspnée et l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC) est supérieur au seul VEMS pour prédire la mortalité. Les objectifs de la prise en charge sont résumés dans l’encadré 2[1] and [2]. Deux composantes ont souvent été opposées : les objectifs symptomatiques (dyspnée, tolérance à l’exercice, qualité de vie) et la modification de « l’histoire naturelle » de la maladie (mortalité, déclin fonctionnel respiratoire).

“Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder charact

“Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures Selleck Cyclopamine affecting 1–2% of the population worldwide.1 The most underlying mechanism in the development and progression of epilepsy and several other neurological disorders is oxidative stress.2 Oxidative stress is caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide.3 There are so many drugs available to treat epilepsy but none of them are free from side effects

such as depression, ischemia, impaired cognition, motor disability and etc.4 Among all, depression is the common side effect produced by most of the antiepileptic drugs and that remains untreated.5 It has been observed that seizure activity during epilepsy increases the amount of free radicals and decreases the antioxidant defense

mechanism in selleck chemicals llc the brain which further induce the oxidative stress.3 The extract obtained from plants of the genus Leucas display a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antidiarroheal and antinociceptive activity. 6, 7, 8 and 9 No research or scientific work has been done on Leucas lanata, therefore the present study is aimed at exploring the potential of free radical scavenging activity along with its capability to treat epilepsy. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, 2-thiobarbituric acid, 1, 1, 3, 3-tetramethoxy propane and pentylenetetrazole were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich, St Louis, MO, United States. Phenazine methosulphate, nitroblue tetrazolium and sulfanilamide were purchased from NR chemicals Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India. Sodium nitroprusside was obtained from HiMedia Laboratories Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India. 2-Deoxy-d-ribose and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were obtained from Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India and all other reagents and solvents used

were of analytical grade and obtained from various other commercial sources. The whole plant of L. lanata was collected from Tirulmala hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. L. lanata was authenticated with vochure number 1798. 500 g of air dried and powdered L. much lanata was first defatted with petroleum ether at room temperature for 72 h. The defatted material was extracted with 95% ethanol at room temperature for 72 h. The resultant ethanolic extract was concentrated under reduced pressure at room temperature using rotary vacuum evaporator. Ethanolic extract of L. lanata was subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening to determine the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloid, amino acid, flavonoid, phenolic substance, steroid, protein, saponin and tannin. 10 0.5 ml of ethanolic extract was estimated for total phenolic and flavonoids contents by using UV spectrophotometric method.

10 Scientists are trying to nullify the oxidative effects by prov

10 Scientists are trying to nullify the oxidative effects by providing the antioxidants to the body. An effective antioxidant complex has various types

of radical catching antioxidant sites that seek and destroy free radicals at many cellular sites. There are single specific antioxidants also for example vitamin E – specific for protection of an outer fatty Veliparib concentration layer of cells but not responsible for stabilizing the genetic material. A number of scientific studies are going about addressing the varied health benefits of antioxidant supplementation in processes like stress, ageing, pathogen infestation, apoptosis and neurological diseases. Antioxidants reduce cell damaging effects of free radicals. Besides numerous scientifically compelling studies addressing the varied health benefits selleck compound of antioxidant supplementation, there have been studies, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in injuries in athletic training with the simple addition of a good antioxidant complex supplement. The brain is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative injury, due to its high metabolic rate and elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids, the target of lipid peroxidation. Consequently, antioxidants are commonly used as medications to

treat various forms of brain injury. Antioxidants are also being investigated as possible treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and as a way to prevent noise induced hearing loss.10 People take antioxidant supplements directly from fresh fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables contain a large amount of flavonoids and antioxidant supplements that contribute to protection against different

types of cancers and cardiovascular health problems.11 People in today’s world want to eat healthier food to stay fit and this Parvulin is being achieved by incorporating unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in the food products being marketed. The quality of any product is measured on the scale of certain parameters and the approval of the same by its consumers. Similarly, in terms of food quality it is measured on parameters like aroma, taste and its appearance. As the human lifestyle and also its view towards food are changing thus there is an increased shift observed from convenient foods to ready-to-eat product category. For this there is need of certain potential health protecting factors named as Antioxidants.12 Antioxidants have wide application as these are used as additives in fats and oils and in food processing industries to prevent food spoilage. It is studied that spices and some herbs are good sources of many potential antioxidants. These are added to food which contain unsaturated fatty acids to make them last longer and to prevent them from turning rancid under oxidative stress. Thus, efforts are being made to reduce oxidation by increasing addition of antioxidants to food.

16 Here we

report the facile synthesis, characterization

16 Here we

report the facile synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel N-alkyl-2-(3,5-dimethyl-1,1-dioxido-2H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-yl)benzamides Metformin datasheet having novel substitution groups at the fourth position of the 1,2,6-thiadiazine ring (see Scheme 1). Melting points were determined in open capillary tubes and are uncorrected. All the chemicals and solvents used were laboratory grade. IR spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu-8400 FT-IR spectrometer using KBr disc. 1H NMR spectra were recorded on a Brucker 300 MHz spectrometer using TMS as an internal standard in CDCl3 and DMSO-d6, 13C NMR spectra were recorded on DPX 200 Brucker FT-NMR. Mass Spectra were obtained using a Hewlett–Packard 5989, Quadrapole Mass Spectrometer and a LC–MS Perkin Elmer API 165. Elemental analysis was performed on a Perkin Elmer 2400 Series II instrument. Methyl

2-(3,5-dimethyl-1,1-dioxido-2H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-yl) benzoate was synthesized as previously reported.17 2-(2, 4-dioxopentan-3-yl) benzoic acid (0.072 mol) and sulfamide (0.072 mol) were dissolved in methanol (70 ml). Anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas was bubbled into the mixture until the temperature increased to 50 °C. The contents of the reaction were then refluxed for 3 h. The reaction mixture was cooled, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The ester was isolated and hydrolyzed with NaOH (0.138 mol) in water (200 ml), the contents were heated at 70 °C for 2.5 h. The reaction progress was monitored by TLC ethyl acetate/hexane (80:20 Rf = 1/2). The reaction mixture was cooled and acidified using concentrated HCl to get the Cobimetinib order crude acid as an oil. To this oily residue was added a solution of methanol:ethyl acetate (10 ml) (1:9) which yielded a white colourless solid. 2-(3,5-dimethyl-1,1-dioxido-2H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-yl)benzoic

acid (1) (5.0 g, 0.017 mol) and carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) (2.89 g, 0.017 mol) in 50 ml of dry tetrahydrofuran was stirred for 30 min at room temperature. The aliphatic or aromatic amines were then added slowly and the solution was stirred for 12 h at room temperature. The solvent was then completely evaporated and the tuclazepam residual mass was treated with 5% HCl (25 ml) and stirred for 1 h. The precipitates (pale yellow to light brown) were filtered and then recrystallized from a solution of water:ethanol (1:1) at room temperature. The elemental analysis, NMR and mass spectrometry data for compounds 2a–j follow: Mol. Wt: 335.42,M.P.: 192–195 °C; Yield 79% Rf 0.80; IR (cm−1): 1683(C]O amide), 3243 (N–H), 1164, 1317 (>S]O); 1505 (C]N); 3444 (NH–C]O): 1H NMR (δppm): 1.98 (s, 6H, Di-Methyl), 0.94 (t, 3H, –CH2–CH3), 1.36 (m, 2H, –CH2–CH3), 1.53 (m, 2H, –CH2–CH2–), 3.39 (m, 2H, –NH–CH2–), 7.21–7.65 (m, 4H, Ar–H), 8.1 (s, –C]O–NH–); Elemental analysis for C16H21N3O3S; Calculated: C, 57.24; H, 6.26; N, 12.52; O,14.

4 Carvone (2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexenone)

4 Carvone (2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexenone) Obeticholic Acid mouse is a clear, colorless liquid with freezing and boiling points of 25 °C and 231 °C, respectively. Carvone, an oxygenated monoterpene, is the major component of essential oil from caraway and dill. 5 Anethole and carvone have low solubility in water. Nanoencapsulation of hydrophobic antimicrobial compounds has large potential for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery in food and drug systems. Nanoparticles provide several advantages. Because of their small size, they penetrate areas

(intracellular and extracellular areas) that may be inaccessible to other drug delivery systems. Nanoparticles protect a drug against degradation and reduce its side effects. 6 Between all the biodegradable polymers used in nanoparticles preparation, PLGA has shown immense potentials as a drug delivery vehicle. PLGA is most accepted among the various available biodegradable polymers because it has long clinical experience, and its degradation characteristics is favorable and it has possibilities for sustained drug delivery. 4 For instance, it was previously reported that antimicrobial effects of minocycline 6 and rifampicin 7 have been improved by preparation PLGA nanoparticles, while the results of one study have been revealed that

the PLGA nanoparticles of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol showed different degrees of growth inhibition. 8 In this work, we used nanoprecipitation and ESE methods AZD9291 datasheet with different formulations to improve the antibacterial and encapsulation efficiency

of essential oils in the uniform and small size of PLGA nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized and compared for their size, size distribution, morphology, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, drug release profile, Resminostat and finally the antimicrobial effects of these compounds were tested. PLGA (Resomer 504H) was purchased from Boehringer Ingelheim (Ingelheim, Germany). Polyvinyl alcohol (Mw 30,000–70,000 Da) was purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Muller-Hinton broth and caso agar (Merck, Germany) were used for microbiological tests. Dialysis bag (Spectra/Por®, Mw 12,000 Da) was used for dialysis purification and drug release test. Anethole, carvone, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dichloromethane (DCM) and HPLC grade methanol were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). Other reagents and solvents were of analytical grade. In ESE method, organic phase were prepared by dissolving of carvone or anethole, and PLGA in a 15.2 mL mixture of DCM and acetone (Table 1). The organic phase was injected through a syringe equipped with a 20-G angiocatheter into 45 mL of an aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution (0.5% wt/v) and homogenized (Ultra-turrax, IKA, Germany) at 24,000 rpm for 5 min. The emulsion was then sonicated (Misonix, USA) for 5 min (30W). The resulting nanoemulsion was maintained under a mechanical stirrer (IKA, Germany) under gentle mixing for 3 h to evaporation of organic solvent.

Physiotherapists administered both tilt table standing and electr

Physiotherapists administered both tilt table standing and electrical stimulation. The experimental group also wore an ankle splintb for at least 12 hours a day, 5 days per week. The

splints positioned the ankles in maximum tolerable dorsiflexion. Physiotherapists, nursing staff or physiotherapy assistants, as directed by the treating HTS assay physiotherapists, applied them. Participants in the control group only received tilt table standing for 30 minutes, three times a week. They did not stand with a wedge under the foot. In short, the intervention programs of the two groups differed in three ways. Firstly, the experimental group received 30 sessions of tilt table standing, while the control group received 18 sessions. Secondly, the experimental group received maximum stretch (by using a wedge where applicable) while standing on the tilt table, while the control group did not receive stretch beyond a plantigrade position. Thirdly, the experimental group received electrical stimulation

and ankle splinting, while the control group did not. During the 4-week follow-up period, participants Nutlin-3a price in both groups stood on a tilt table for 30 minutes, three times a week, without a wedge. No electrical stimulation or splinting was administered to the ankle during this time. Over the course of the trial, all participants received usual multidisciplinary rehabilitation provided by the participating units, as appropriate. This consisted of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, recreational therapy and psychological therapy. Physiotherapy included an individualised motor training program, which, where appropriate, included practice of sitting to standing, walking and standing. The usual care for both groups Digestive enzyme involved positioning of participants’ feet in dorsiflexion while seated and lying. No other passive stretch-based interventions were administered to the ankle during the trial. Physiotherapists were assigned to patients on admission

(ie, prior to recruitment). Thus, the physiotherapists managed an arbitrary mix of control and experimental participants. Diaries were used to record all interventions. No other passive stretch-based interventions were administered to the ankle. In addition, no botulinum toxin injection was administered to the ankle during the study period. Use of anti-spasticity medication was not mandated by the study protocol, but was recorded. Assessors and medical staff were blinded to group allocation, but treating physiotherapists and participants were not. Success of assessor blinding was monitored. There were one primary and nine secondary outcomes. The primary outcome was passive ankle dorsiflexion measured with a torque of 12 Nm with the knee in extension. This was used to reflect the extensibility of the bi-articular ankle plantarflexor muscles.

, 2009 and Engler et al , 2008) Following SDR, splenic leukocyte

, 2009 and Engler et al., 2008). Following SDR, splenic leukocytes from stressed selleck chemicals llc mice release more Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin and toll-like receptor 4 agonist, compared to leukocytes from control mice, an effect that is driven

both by increased number of leukocytes as well as enhanced release from each leukocyte (Avitsur et al., 2005). Enhanced cytokine release likely stems from the glucocorticoid resistance demonstrated by splenic macrophages and monocytes post-SDR, and indicates dysregulation of negative feedback mechanisms by which glucocorticoids and cytokines together self regulate stress-induced hyperinflammation (Stark et al., 2001). SDR-induced glucocorticoid resistance in macrophages is at least partly due to a cytokine-mediated failure of corticosterone to stimulate nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors and prevent NFκB-induced proinflammatory transcription (Quan et al., 2003). Splenic macrophage enrichment and glucocorticoid resistance is dependent upon Interleukin-1 (IL-1)—mice lacking IL-1 receptor type 1 do not display these phenotypes (Engler et al., 2008). Interestingly, PD-0332991 price Avitsur et al. (2001) observed individual differences in macrophage

glucocorticoid resistance based upon level of social subordination. Submissive mice were more likely to develop splenocyte corticosterone insensitivity following SDR than were control or dominant mice. Glucocorticoid resistance Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase correlated negatively with time spent in social exploration and positively with time spent in submissive postures. Level of social exploration prior to SDR exposure was

predictive of submissive behavior during the first session of SDR, suggesting that pre-existing differences in mouse behavior may predict response to SDR. Collectively, these results imply that the adaptive mechanism by which corticosterone represses the immune system in response to stress is compromised in susceptible (submissive) mice but maintained in resilient (dominant) mice. Further study is required to determine whether active molecular and cellular mechanisms maintain glucocorticoid sensitivity in resilient mice following SDR exposure and, similar to subordinate behavior, whether baseline differences in these mechanisms can predict ultimate behavioral response. As glucocorticoid resistance is a hallmark symptom of depression, further understanding of immune cell resilience to glucocorticoid insensitivity may prove particularly advantageous for therapeutics. Recent findings by Hodes et al. (in press) suggest that pre-existing differences in IL-6 signaling from leukocytes also predict behavioral response to CSDS.

Anuradha Reddy for their

Anuradha Reddy for their GDC-0973 purchase constant encouragement. “
“Liver is one of the largest organ play vital roles in human body and liver diseases are some of the fatal disease in the world today. A healthy liver is a crucial factor for overall

health and well-being because liver involves in metabolism, secretion, storage and excretion. Any injury to liver can result in many disorders ranging from transient elevation in liver enzyme to life threatening liver cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The common causative agents of liver injuries are alcohol, poor drug habits, over-the-counter drugs, toxic chemicals (e.g. CCl4, aflatoxin etc.), therapeutic drugs (e.g. Antibiotics, anti-tubercular drugs etc.) and microbial agents (e.g. hepatic virus, leptospira, malarial parasites) which can eventually lead to various liver ailments like hepatitis, cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease. So liver has a surprising role to play in the maintenance, performance and regulating homeostasis of the body. It is involved with almost all the biochemical pathways to growth, fight against disease, nutrient supply, energy provision and reproduction.

The modern medicines have little to offer click here for alleviation of hepatic diseases but there is not much drug available for the treatment of liver disorders.1 The plant Swertia chirayita Buch-Ham (Gentianaceae) is one of the oldest herbal medicines used against bronchial asthma and liver disorders from ancient time in western India. It has been widely used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine system as an anthelmintic, febrifuge and stomach and protective liver tonic. 2 and 3 The herb containing amarogentin (most

bitter compound isolated till date) as main chemical constituent attributed anthelmintic, hypoglycemic and antipyretic properties. Swerchirin a compound with xanthone structure has hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective activity 4 and 5 and the xanthone content of Swertia is mostly responsible from for its hepatoprotective activity. 6 Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, (family: Acanthaceae) commonly and locally known as “Kalmegh” is an important traditional medicinal plant, occurring wild in different region of India, and is used both in Ayurveda and Unani system of medicine. 7 It is also known as “King of Bitters”, and is a member of ancient medicinal herb with an extensive ethnobotanical history in Asia. Modern pharmacological studies indicate that active compound andrographolide are very bitter diterpene lactones protects the liver and gallbladder, and has been found to be slightly more active than Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug 8 Neo-andrographolide shows greater activity against malaria 9 while 14-deoxy andrographolide produced a more potent hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats.