1%). In May and June 2011, all baseline respondents were invited, and 1,012 respondents participated in the 2011 survey (55.6%). The respondents received selleck inhibitor compensation for their participation in each survey by earning points for every answered question, as is standard procedure in the TNS NIPObase web panel. The points could be exchanged for money, which ranged between 5 and 7 Euros for each survey. Measurements Control Variables (2008) Control variables were gender, age group, educational level, heaviness of smoking, smoking status, and attempts to quit smoking in the last year. These variables were assessed at the 2008 survey. Age was categorized as 15�C24, 25�C39, 40�C54, and 55 years and older.
Education was categorized in three levels: low (primary education and lower prevocational secondary education), moderate (middle prevocational secondary education and secondary vocational education), and high (senior general secondary education, pre-university education, and higher professional education). The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) was created as the sum of two categorized measures: number of cigarettes per day and time before smoking the first cigarette of the day (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, Rickert, & Robinson, 1989). HSI values ranged from 0 to 6 and were positively associated with nicotine dependence. Smoking status was categorized as daily smoker versus occasional smoker. Attempts to quit smoking were categorized as attempted to quit in the last year versus did not attempt to quit in the last year.
Individual Exposure (2009) Not all individuals were exposed to the smoke-free legislation, because not all hospitality industry venues complied with the legislation and not all individuals visited hospitality industry venues. Individual exposure to smoke-free legislation was assessed using the questions ��Which of the following best describes the rules about smoking in bars where you live?�� and ��Which of the following best describes the rules about smoking in restaurants where you live?�� Response categories were ��No rules or restriction�� (0), ��Smoking is allowed only in some indoor areas�� (1), and ��Smoking is not allowed in any indoor area�� (2). Respondents who had not visited bars Anacetrapib or restaurants or did not know the rules about smoking were placed in the category ��no rules or restrictions��. The two questions were also used in previous research to assess exposure to smoking restrictions (Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, & Borland, 2006). Policy-Specific Variables (2008, 2009) Consistent with previous research (Nagelhout, Van den Putte, et al.