2 yr; withers height: 145 +/- 0.3 cm). The size of the liver, angle of the ventral liver margin, and thickness of the liver over selleckchem the portal vein and caudal vena cava were measured in the 10th and 11th intercostal spaces via ultrasonography. As the gold standard, TAG was determined enzymatically in liver biopsies. Hepatic TAG ranged from 5 to 292 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). Cows were allocated to 4 groups according to their hepatic TAG content (TAG >= 150 mg/g of FW, n = 32; >= 100 to 150 mg/g of FW, n = 34; >= 50 to 100 mg/g of FW, n = 38; < 50 mg/g of FW, n = 29). Weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.26 to 0.49) between the ultrasonographic
liver measurements and hepatic TAG indicated an increased size and angle of the liver with increasing hepatic fat accumulation. All mean liver ultrasonographic measurements revealed differences between TAG classes (P < 0.001), with the greatest values in cows with hepatic TAG concentrations >= 150 mg/g of FW. Stepwise multiple linear regression for hepatic
TAG prediction (r(2) = 0.34, P < 0.001) and stepwise discriminant analysis used only ultrasonographic measurements obtained via the 10th intercostal space and age. Regression analysis revealed that TAG prediction widely overestimated measured TAG in the low TAG range and underestimated TAG in the high TAG range. see more The sensitivity and specificity based Selleck Anlotinib on discriminant analysis for differentiation of the TAG groups were 0.61 and 0.61 (< 50 vs. = 50 mg/g of FW), 0.67 and 0.71 (< 50 vs. >= 100 mg/g of FW),
0.83 and 0.82 (< 50 vs. >= 150 mg/g of FW), 0.70 and 0.77 (< 100 vs. >= 100 mg/g of FW), and 0.83 and 0.85 (< 100 vs. >= 150 mg/g of FW), respectively. Results revealed that with a hepatic TAG content of approximately 100 mg/g of FW, the liver increased in size and its margins became rounded. Pronounced increases in the size and thickness of the liver and in the angle of the liver occurred only in cows with very severe fatty liver (TAG >= 150 mg/g of FW). However, the determination of ultrasonographic measurements of liver size and shape appeared to be of limited diagnostic value in the recognition of fatty liver because of increased interindividual variance in dairy cows.”
“Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has been introduced for studies of ongoing biological processes but has never been applied for ovarian transplantation. Here, BLI was used as a novel approach to trace the survival of ovarian grafts. The ovarian donors were transgenic mice carrying FVB/N-Tg (PolII-luc) as a reporter gene, encoding luciferase to catalyse luciferin which results in visible light emission as bioluminescence.