, 2010) In the hamster model, infectious viral titers decline to

, 2010). In the hamster model, infectious viral titers decline to the limits of detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by days 6 due to the appearance of WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies titers in the CSF (Morrey et al., 2004b and Morrey et al., 2007). Viral antigens are detected in mice and hamsters in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brainstem, and spinal cord (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006 and Xiao et al., 2001), and histopathological lesions can be identified in coronal sections throughout the whole brain and spinal cord (Siddharthan et selleck chemicals al., 2009). The mechanisms

of entry of the virus are uncertain, but according to rodent studies could involve hematogenous spread of infected cells across the blood brain barrier (BBB) (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2009), permeabilization of the BBB (Wang et al., 2004), trans-cellular movement of virus from the luminal to apical sides of endothelial cells (Verma et al., 2009 and Xu et al., 2012), trafficking of WNV-associated leukocytes across endothelial cells (Dai et al., 2008), and retrograde axonal infection (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006 and Samuel et al.,

2007). The time in which the virus infects the human CNS with respect to the initial exposure to the virus is not known, but viral proteins and RNA appear in rodent CNS structures within 2–4 days after viral exposure (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006). Appearance ABT-888 datasheet of infectious virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of hamsters is a marker for infection of the CNS and occurs at day 4 after viral challenge (Morrey et al., 2007). Overt signs of disease in hamsters such as front limb tremors, diarrhea, difficulty walking, and paralysis are observed at 7–12 days after subcutaneous viral challenge (Morrey et al., 2004b and Xiao et al., 2001). Two laboratory-acquired human WNV infections indicates that febrile illness occurs at 3–4 days after viral exposure (Laboratory-acquired West Nile virus infections – United States, 2002), but the time of onset of WNND in human subjects after viral exposure is uncertain, except for a patient that developed clinical

encephalitis 13 days after receiving transfusions oxyclozanide of blood components, one of which was retrospectively positive for WNV (Macedo de Oliveira et al., 2004). One outcome that is markedly different between rodent and human WNV infections is the mortality rate. Mortality rate in rodents can vary depending on the strain of virus, but rates with the New York strain and the 2002 strain WN02 are typically 60–90% (Morrey et al., 2004a, Morrey et al., 2008c and Oliphant et al., 2005). In contrast, the human mortality rate is <1% (Petersen and Marfin, 2002). Even though mortality may be a good endpoint for evaluating therapeutic agents when administered before or slightly after viral exposure and before the virus has infected the CNS, mortality may not be a suitable endpoint when evaluating therapeutics that are anticipated to treat neuropathological conditions of WNND.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>