4,6,7 This issue is further aggravated by the 1- to 2-year waitin

4,6,7 This issue is further aggravated by the 1- to 2-year waiting list for entering a presurgical evaluation program in the majority of epilepsy surgery centers. Several reasons underlie the above situation, including the patients’ and physicians’ legitimate fear of a postoperative permanent neurological deficit, the frequently insidious course of chronic epilepsy,8 the relatively low yield of long-term postoperative seizure freedom (~ 60% after 10 years of follow-up),9 the paucity of randomized control trials (RCTs) demonstrating the efficacy of surgical Romidepsin solubility therapy over antiepileptic drugs (AEDs),10 the complexity and heterogeneity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of surgical treatments,

and the limited resources dedicated to the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients. Some of these reasons can now be challenged. For instance, major safety progress has been made in the field of neurosurgery, with a risk of unexpected vascular or infectious complications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical resulting in a residual disabling neurological impairment of about 1% in experienced epilepsy surgery groups.2,11 Thus,

the risk of seizurerelated death or serious injury in drug-resistant patients refusing epilepsy surgery (about 1 % per year), is significantly higher than the major morbidity/mortality associated with surgical treatment (about l%in total). The suboptimal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical yield of postoperative long-term seizure freedom must also be balanced with the much worse figures reported in patients who have not been operated on, only 5% to 14% of whom will achieve seizure remission.12,13 Altogether, the available data in the literature strongly suggest that epilepsy surgery is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical significantly more efficacious than medical treatment. Eligibility criteria for presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery Patient selection for epilepsy surgery is a two-step procedure that first aims to identify Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical potential surgical candidates who should benefit from a presurgical evaluation, and then to determine in each assessed individual whether

the risk:benefit ratio for surgery is acceptable. Three main criteria must be fulfilled to enter the first Brefeldin_A step: (i) the patient (or his or her parents for young children and patients with intellectual impairment) needs to understand the objective of the presurgical evaluation and to agree on the clearly possibility of a surgical treatment; (ii) the patient should suffer from disabling seizures despite appropriate medical therapy; and (iii) available imaging and electroclinical data should be consistent with the possibility of a surgically remediable epileptic syndrome. The first criterion is minor, but should not be overlooked, since it often represents a limiting factor in patients who would otherwise be considered good surgical candidates. The second criterion relies on the definition of disability and drug resistance.

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