78 After binding of the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide to T

78 After binding of the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide to Toll-like receptor 4, integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) could also be activated in macrophages. However, in contrast to the positive role of LFA-1 in T-cell activation, integrin Mac-1 plays a negative role to reduce Toll-like receptor-mediated signalling and limits inflammation.79 Further, new functions of integrins in leucocytes are emerging. Integrin α4β7 in mucosal T cells binds directly with the V2 loop of gp120 in HIV-1, which results in rapid activation of LFA-1 to facilitate the formation of virological learn more synapses and efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1. Blocking the interaction of integrin

α4β7 with gp120 via a peptide could significantly reduce HIV-1 entry into T cells.80 ITK, which regulates integrin activation, can enhance HIV-1 entry and transmission between cells.81 Integrin αEβ7 (CD103) has also been identified in regulatory T (Treg) cells but plays no mandatory role for Treg-cell-mediated control of colitis.82 Signalling proteins Rap1 and protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) which affect integrin activation

might regulate Treg-cell function.83,84 With more detailed understanding of the role of different integrins in different cell types, we would target specific integrins with blocking antibodies, RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptides or small molecules in the treatment of various diseases. For example, blocking antibody to α4-integrin has shown some degree of success in multiple sclerosis and in inflammatory bowel disease.9 However, there are some remaining concerns, including the possibility that blocking integrin www.selleckchem.com/products/acalabrutinib.html function ADP ribosylation factor would generally compromise the immune

system’s ability to fight against infection or that diseases might relapse upon cessation of blockade of integrins. It is therefore important to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of how integrin function is regulated, and this might provide us with new specific targets through which to treat integrin-related diseases. This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011CB505005 and 2012CB910800), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31070778), the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (11PJ1410700). The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. “
“Matrix metalloproteinases are responsible for degradation and remodelling of extracellular matrix and exert important roles in initiation and progression of inflammatory diseases. We aimed to examine the role of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators in degenerative arterial diseases. Serum samples were collected from patients with arterial disease (n = 126), who underwent surgery because of symptomatic aorto-occlusive disease (AOD, n = 18), carotid artery stenosis (n = 67) or abdominal arotic aneurysm (n = 41).

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