(a) 10, (b) 60 and (c) 144 min. The scale bar is 500 nm. Figure 3 Measured NWs diameter AZD6738 order and length (a) and axial growth rate (b) as function of growth time. Inset shows the dependence of the ratio of deposited volume between radial and axial growth on growth time. The major contributions to the axial growth of NWs include the following [29]: (i) impingement of adatoms on the top of NWs directly, (ii) impingement on the substrate surface and diffusion up the sidewalls, and (iii) impingement on Berzosertib price sidewall and diffusion up

to the top of NWs. Although this is for VLS growth mechanism, we believe that the principle is applicable to VS growth mode. The major contributors for axial and lateral growths are the adatoms impinging on the surface around NW and on the sidewall of NW. All the adatoms collected from these two sources are finally incorporated into NW growth either through liquid droplet or nucleate directly onto the top of NW, so there is no significant difference between VLS and VS in terms of growth contribution from impinging adatoms. It is well accepted that the contribution from direct impingement on the top of NWs is negligible. The fast increasing growth rate in the beginning is due to the

significant contribution from adatoms collected by the surface. With the growth of NWs, more and larger parasitic islands grow on the surface so that the surface area around the NWs collecting incoming adatoms decreases, leading Elongation factor 2 kinase to SIS3 research buy a reduced contribution from surface collection, and consequently the contribution from sidewall impingement becomes dominant. The axial growth rate, GR, due to the sidewall impingement can be expressed as [21]. where R is the NW radius, L diff is diffusion length along the sidewall, θ is the in-plane angle of the normal sidewall with respect

to the beam direction, φ is the angle of incident beam to the substrate, and F in is the nominal growth rate. The value of θ varies from 0° to 30° due to hexagonal symmetry of the NWs, φ is 30° as defined by our system. Since no tapered NW was observed in our growths, it is obvious that all of the impinging adatoms diffuse along the entire NW length, i.e. the diffusion length is much longer than the length of NWs in our growth. Taking into account the nominal growth rate of 0.1 μm h−1, NWs radius of 0.041 μm, and assuming L diff > length of NWs L, we can estimate the growth rate dependence on L as shown in Figure 3b. The radial growth was accounted in the calculation. It can be seen that the experimental growth rate does not follow the calculated dependence. The slower increase of growth rate with growth time can be due to the limitation of the adatoms’ diffusion along the sidewall. However, this is not the case in our growths since no tapering is visible. This assumption is consistent to the demonstrations in InAs NWs on Si [21].