A) Cytochalasin D; B) Colchicine Monolayers were infected for 6

A) Cytochalasin D; B) Colchicine. Monolayers were infected for 6 h (aEPEC) and 3 h (tEPEC). S. enterica sv Typhimurium and S. flexneri were used as controls and monolayers were infected for 4 h and

6 h, respectively. Results as percent invasion are means ± standard error from at least three independent experiments performed in duplicate. * P < 0.05 by an unpaired, two-tailed t test. HeLa cells are derived DihydrotestosteroneDHT in vivo from a human uterine cervix carcinoma. They are widely used to study bacterial interactions with epithelial cells yet they do not represent an adequate host cell type to mimic human gastrointestinal infections. To examine whether aEPEC strains would also invade intestinal epithelial cells, we infected T84 cells (derived from a colonic adenocarcinoma), cultivated for 14 days for polarization and differentiation, with all 6 aEPEC strains. The ability of these strains to promote A/E lesions in T84 cells was confirmed by FAS (Table 1). In the gentamicin protection assays performed with these cells, ��-Nicotinamide research buy 5 of 6 strains were significantly more invasive than the prototype tEPEC strain E2348/69 (Fig. 1B). The exception was aEPEC 4051-6 (1.5% ± 1.2) that showed similar invasion index as tEPEC E2348/69 (0.5% ± 0.2). The invasion indexes of the 5 aEPEC strains

varied from 5.8% ± 1.7 (aEPEC 4281-7) to 17.8% ± 3.1 (aEPEC 1632-7). These results demonstrate that besides invading HeLa cells, aEPEC strains carrying distinct intimin see more subtypes invade epithelial cells of human intestinal origin to different levels. Interestingly, the aEPEC invasion indexes were significantly higher than that of tEPEC E2348/69, but this comparison

should be made with caution since the incubation-periods used were different. Nonetheless, it has already been demonstrated that tEPEC is unable to efficiently invade fully differentiated intestinal epithelial cells [42]. To confirm invasiveness, we examined T84 cells infected with aEPEC strains by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This approach confirmed that 5 out of 6 aEPEC strains tested promoted A/E lesion formation and were also internalized (Fig. 3A and 3B). Under the conditions used, although some tEPEC E2348/69 cells were intra-cellular, most remained extra-cellular and intimately attached to the epithelial cell surface (Fig. 3C). Except for aEPEC Isotretinoin strains 4281-7 in HeLa cells and 4051-6 in T84 cells, the remaining four strains tested were more invasive than tEPEC E2348/69 and showed heterogeneous invasion index in both HeLa and T84 cells. Figure 3 Transmission electron microscopy of infected polarized and differentiated T84. A) aEPEC 1551-2, B) aEPEC 0621-6 and C) prototype tEPEC E2348/69. Monolayers were infected for 6 h (aEPEC) and 3 h (tEPEC). aEPEC 1551-2 and 0621-6 were selected because, according to the data in Fig. 1B, they presented an average invasion index as compared to the other strains studied. Arrows indicate bacterial-containing vacuoles.

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