A Sturman–Master chamber and a V-Groove nebulizer were also used

A Sturman–Master chamber and a V-Groove nebulizer were also used. The metal determinations were carried out under manufacturer-recommended conditions for power (1.3 kW), plasma gas flow (15.0 L min−1), auxiliary gas flow (1.5 L min−1) and nebulizer gas flow (0.7 L min−1). The analytical wavelength chosen were 324.754, 248.327, 232.003 and 213.857 nm

for Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn, respectively. All reagents were of analytical grade quality and freshly distilled and deionized water was used for dilutions. The hydrochloric acid (37%), propan-1-ol, and monoelementar 1000 mg kg−1 aqueous standards of Cu, Fe Ni and Zn were supplied by Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). A 900 μg g−1 metallo-organic multi-element standard was from AccuStandard Inc. (New Haven, USA) and propan-1-ol was used for the dilutions of metallo-organic standard solution. Soybean, olive LY294002 research buy and sunflower oils were obtained from local vendors. Microemulsions were prepared by mixing samples with propan-1-ol and aqueous acid solution. Approximately 0.5 g of vegetable oil samples were placed in 10 mL volumetric flasks, where 100 μL of hydrochloric

acid was added. Propan-1-ol was then added under continuous agitation until a final volume of 10 mL. After vigorous shaking, the samples were evenly dispersed in the emulsion resulting in a visually homogeneous system and remained stable for a few hours. Analytical curves were carried out using standards prepared similar to the samples and the metals were for added as metallo-organic standard solutions. Analytical curves using aqueous standard solutions were LEE011 in vitro obtained for the purpose of comparison with analytes concentration ranging from 0.10 to 4.5 mg kg−1. Non-spiked oil dispersions were used as blanks and the analytes concentrations in the blank was determined by the analyte addition technique. The results obtained were evaluated based on the intensity of the corrected blank. Samples of vegetable oils were weighed and subsequently digested

using a microwave unit. After digestion with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide clear solutions were obtained and the analytes were determined by ICP OES. In the procedure, each sample of oil (0.5 g) was weighed into the digestion vessels. The digestions were performed by adding 3.5 mL of HNO3 conc. and 1.0 mL H2O2 (30%) to the sample. The microwave oven heating programme was performed in five steps using 35 Bar of pressure, as depicted in Table 1. The fifth step was a cooling down procedure of the system through forced ventilation over 20 min. After cooling all the digests were transferred into 10 mL volumetric flasks and diluted to volume with HNO3 (1% v/v). The digestion procedure was done in triplicate for each sample and reagent blanks were prepared similar to the samples.

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