After seven days of adaptation, the animals were dosed with molasses-based alkane boluses (each containing 200 g C-32 and 150 g C-36) twice daily at 07:00 and 18:00 h. Concurrent with the alkane dosing, faecal spot samples were taken twice daily until the end of each run. In addition, total faecal collections were performed over the last 5 days of each run. The mean faecal recovery rate of both natural and dosed n-alkanes ranged between 0.61 and 0.86, with the recovery showing an upward trend with increasing carbon-chain length. The recovery rate of dosed alkanes was considerably higher than that of adjacent odd-chain alkanes. Whilst
diets did not differ (P >= 0.23) in the recovery of even-chain n-alkanes, an effect of diet (P <= 0.01) was observed in the PD-1/PD-L1 activation recovery of odd-chain n-alkanes. The faecal concentration of dosed alkanes reached equilibrium 3.30 days into the alkane dosing. On the assumption of similar faecal recovery of adjacent n-alkanes, intake was underestimated by 12% (P<0.001) when C-31/C-33 and C-33/C-32 alkane pairs were used and by only 1.5% (P >= 0.42) when C-35/C-36 was used. Correction for differences in the faecal recovery of adjacent n-alkanes considerably improved AZD6094 chemical structure the intake prediction
when C-31/C-32 and C-33/C-32 pairs were used. Digestibility of diets was accurately predicted using either C-36 as external marker or C-35 as internal marker corrected for incomplete recovery. NVP-BSK805 order The results showed that molasses-based boluses administered twice daily are suitable, and that knowledge of the faecal recovery rates of adjacent n-alkanes improves the reliability of the predictions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Novel positively charged composite nanofiltration membranes were facilely prepared by polydopamine
(PDA) deposition followed by poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) grafting on polyethersulfone (PES) substrates. Scanning election microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement and water contact angle measurement were employed to characterize the surface chemical composition and morphology of the resultant membranes. The rejection of salts was increased but the pure water flux was decreased with the increase of PDA deposition time, PEI concentration, PEI reaction temperature and time. The salts rejection followed the sequence: MgCl2 bigger than CaCl2 bigger than MgSO4 bigger than Na2SO4, confirming that the membranes were positively charged. The rejection of MgCl2 could reach 73.7%, whereas the rejection of CaCl2 was 57.1%. Moreover, the membranes exhibited a superior rejection of up to 96.5% for cationic dyes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.