All of these factors, accompanied by the present


All of these factors, accompanied by the present

evidence that attacks may transpire in just a matter of minutes, might certainly explain the lack of in situ observations of this behavior in the field to date. In the Moray Firth population, infanticidal events may be orchestrated by single males (as seen in the present report and by Wilson1) or by several cooperating males at once (e.g., Eisfeld 2003). Nonetheless, all events essentially involve the same prolonged chasing, repeated ramming, tossing out of the water, and attempted asphyxiation of targeted newborns. Nery and Simão (2009) reported similar coercive strategies used by marine tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis) towards an early newborn calf. Moreover, Panobinostat order the mechanisms used by other delphinids in predatory and nonpredatory interspecific events alike (e.g., killer whale, Orcinus orca, attacks on baleen whales as described by Ford et al. 2005 and Barrett-Lennard et al. 2011, and lethal attacks on harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, by bottlenose dolphins, e.g., Ross and Wilson 1996, Cotter et al. 2012) are clearly comparable, in both method and execution, to the event described herein. The present paper contributes a valuable, first-hand

account of infanticidal behavior in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins, adding further to our understanding of the mechanisms and conditions Selumetinib that may elicit such responses in these highly-social, aquatic mammals. All observations were made during boat surveys under license number 9380 from Scottish Natural Heritage. Field support was provided by Jamie Vaughan, MCE公司 Elizabeth Wheeler, Marilynne Eichinger, and Gisa Scheschonka. Many thanks to David Janiger for providing bibliographic references, Kirsten Henry

for proof reading, Colin MacLeod, Paul Thompson, Paul Jepson and Mark Simmonds for constructive comments on the initial manuscript, and Care for the Wild International for ongoing financial and moral support. Thank you also to the three anonymous reviewers whose valuable input and advice resulted in this much improved final paper. “
“Long-term passive acoustic monitoring of marine mammals on navy ranges provides the opportunity to better understand the potential impact of sonar on populations. The navy range in Tongue of the Ocean (TOTO), Bahamas contains extensive hydrophone arrays, potentially allowing estimation of the density of deep diving, vocally active species such as the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Previous visual surveys in TOTO have been of limited spatio–temporal coverage and resulted in only sporadic sightings of sperm whales, whereas passive acoustic observations suggest the species is present year round. However, until now the means of acoustically determining the specific number of individuals in each cluster has been limited. We used recently developed algorithms to identify the number of echolocating whales present during a 42 d study period.

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