Although mechanisms to diversify innate immune genes are not clearly understood, a seemingly unlikely source for insight into innate immune diversification may be derived from the purple sea urchin, which has recently had its genome sequenced this website and annotated. Although there are many differences, some characteristics of the sea urchin make for a useful tool to understand the human immune system. The sea urchin is phylogenetically related to humans although, as a group, sea urchins are evolutionarily much older than mammals. Humans require both adaptive and
innate immune responses to survive immune challenges, whereas sea urchins only require innate immune functions. Genes that function in immunity tend to be members of families, and the sea urchin has several innate immune gene families. One of these is the Sp185/333 gene family with about 50 clustered members that encode a diverse array of putative immune response proteins. Understanding gene diversification in the Sp185/333 family in the sea urchin may illuminate new mechanisms of TH-302 Others inhibitor diversification that could apply to gene families that function in innate immunity in humans, such as the killer immunoglobulin-like
“Poly (styrene-n-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate) (PSBM)/silica nanocomposite was prepared by emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid surface modified nanosilica. The structure, morphology, size, and size distribution were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamics laser Verubecestat order scattering. The chemical bond was formed between PSBM and nanosilica
revealed by FTIR and TEM studies. The composite particles with an averaged diameter ranging from 30 to 80 nm have the core-shell structure. The effect of silica content on the glass transition temperature T(g), pyrolyze temperature, and rheological behavior of PSBM composites was systematically investigated. The results indicated that the addition of nanosilica could effectively inhibit chain movement, and improved the pyrolyze temperature of PSBM. The steady viscosity and dynamic modulus were strongly dependent on the content and distribution of nanosilica in PSBM nano-composites. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3654-3661, 2011″
“The Tb60Ni30Al10 amorphous alloy was prepared by melt-spinning in the form of ribbons. Its magnetic behavior shows upon magnetization the occurrence of a spin glass to ferromagnetic and a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transitions at 5 and 48 K. The magnetocaloric effects associated with these transitions were investigated. Large positive and negative magnetic entropy changes upon magnetization have been observed in a temperature range interesting for gas liquefaction. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.