As such, HIV-infected persons with fatty liver disease may warran

As such, HIV-infected persons with fatty liver disease may warrant early cardiovascular assessments and institution of risk factor reduction methods; further studies are needed. Regarding scores to predict heart disease, we found that, although a higher FRS was associated Selleckchem BMS-907351 with the presence of CAC, the majority of the HIV-infected persons in

our study with a positive CAC had a ‘low’ FRS. Furthermore, despite a ‘low-risk’ FRS, nearly 30% had a positive CAC score, and 6% had a significant plaque burden (i.e. CAC>100). We acknowledge that the comparison of FRSs using CAC as the comparator may be limited, as the gold standard in diagnosing coronary artery disease is coronary catheterization, which was not performed in our study. The low sensitivity of FRS in detecting coronary calcification in our study,

as well as in another study in HIV-infected patients [42], suggests that better clinical screening tools beyond the FRS are needed for this population. Of note, our study did not investigate clinical outcomes; however, a recent study demonstrated that FRS may underestimate myocardial infarctions among those receiving HAART [43]. These data suggest that novel equations that encompass additional factors may be useful for DAPT order HIV-infected persons. Higher risk scores for increasing age (given concerns about accelerated vascular aging) and elevated inflammatory markers, and inclusion of novel factors such as fatty liver disease and antiretroviral use should be considered. As cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among HIV-infected persons [38,44], clinical trials investigating the predictiveness of novel equations are advocated. Our study had potential limitations.

First, because of the cross-sectional study design, we could not ascertain the temporal association find more between development of fatty liver disease and CAC. We advocate for longitudinal studies to confirm the associations between fatty liver disease and coronary atherosclerosis in HIV-infected persons; in addition, diagnostic tests including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating fatty liver disease, transient elastography for assessing associated hepatic fibrosis, and carotid intima-media thickness for estimating arterial atherosclerosis by ultrasonography should be considered in future studies. Secondly, the diagnoses of fatty liver and coronary disease relied on CT imaging; although studies have supported the use of CT scans in diagnosing these conditions, they may underestimate the prevalence of liver steatosis and overlook noncalcified coronary plaques [23,45,46]. Thirdly, although we evaluated the relationship of body measurements and visual lipodystrophy scores with CAC, objective and reproducible measurements of body fat composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were not performed.

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