BPD patients adjusted their investment to the fairness of their partner. In contrast, nonpatients disregarded the trustees’ fairness in the presence of emotional facial expressions. Both groups performed equally in an emotion recognition task and assessed the trustees’ fairness comparably. When the unfair trustee provided emotional cues, BPD patients assessed their own behavior as more fair, while
the lack of cues led patients to assess their own behavior as unfair. BPD patients are superior in the attribution of mental states to interaction partners when emotional cues are present. While the emotional expressions of a partner dominated the exchange behavior S63845 solubility dmso in nonpatients. BPD patients used the objective fairness of their social counterparts to guide their own behavior despite the existence of emotional cues. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Radical prostatectomy is a common treatment for organ confined prostate cancer and its use is increasing. We examined how the increased volume is being distributed and what hospital characteristics are associated with increasing volume.
Materials and Methods: We identified all men age 40 to less than 80 years who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer from 2000 to 2008 in the NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) check details (586,429). Ownership of a surgical robot was determined
using the 2007 AHA (American Hospital Association) Annual Survey. The association between hospital radical prostatectomy
volume and hospital characteristics, including ownership of a robot, was explored using multivariate linear regression.
Results: From 2000 to 2008 there was a 74% increase in the number of radical prostatectomies performed (p = 0.05) along with a 19% decrease in the number of hospitals performing radical prostatectomy (p < 0.001), resulting in an increase in annual hospital radical prostatectomy volume (p = 0.009). Several hospital variables were associated with greater radical prostatectomy volume including teaching status, urban location, large bed size and ownership of a robot in 2007. On multivariate Rho inhibitor analysis the year, teaching status, large bed size, urban location and presence of a robot were associated with higher hospital radical prostatectomy volume.
Conclusions: Use of radical prostatectomy increased significantly between 2000 and 2008, most notably after 2005. The increase in radical prostatectomy resulted in centralization to select hospitals, particularly those in the top radical prostatectomy volume quartile and those investing in robotic technology. Our findings support the hypothesis that hospitals with the greatest volume increases are specialty centers already performing a high volume of radical prostatectomy procedures.