CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RUK – conceived and coordinated the study, performed experiments, analyses, interpreted data and wrote the manuscript.
RK – acquisition of funding, general supervision of the research selleck inhibitor group. EP, AKB, JHP – acquisition of data, edition of the draft manuscript. PP – participated in analysis and interpretation of data, performed the statistical analysis, was involved in drafting the manuscript and revised it critically. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background During the last years a wide consensus has been growing on the fact that α/β ratio for prostate cancer should be low [1–6], encouraging the use of hypo-fractionated treatment schemes. This would result in an increased therapeutic ratio besides a well known series of practical advantages, like diminishing the number of accesses to department, shorter treatment time and abatement of waiting lists. Due to the fact that a major concern on the use of hypofractionation is the late rectal toxicity, the necessity to predict the GANT61 research buy risk of toxicity for alternative treatment schemes is becoming insistent. Leborgne , in a study conducted on patients Blebbistatin supplier treated with brachytherapy
for cancer of the cervix, evaluated an α/β ratio for rectal late complications not significantly different from 3 Gy. In a more recent publication, Brenner
 underlined the importance of investigating the sensitivity of late rectal damage to changes in fractionation and encouraged the use of new data from hypofractionated schemes. His analysis resulted in an α/β ratio estimate of 5.4 Gy, suggesting a correlation with early-responding damage. Since 2003, a phase II randomized trial started at our second institute, to compare a conventional versus a hypofractionated treatment scheme for localized prostate cancer. It was assumed an α/β ratio for prostate of 1.5 Gy. The primary objective of the trial were acute and late toxicity, and survival and local control with controlled PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen). In this work, dose-volume data of rectal wall from patients treated exclusively at our institution were fitted to the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) model proposed by Lyman-Kutcher-Burman [9–11]. The effect of dose fractionation was included in the model to quantify the α/β ratio for late rectal toxicity. Methods Patient population From March 2003 to June 2008, 162 patients with carcinoma of the prostate were randomised for the present study. Assuming that an incidence of ≥ Grade 2 (G2) toxicity in less than 55% of patients is acceptable, the sample size was calculated for a power of 80% and a level of significance of 5%. A total of 114 patients, having a follow-up longer than 6 months, were included in the present analysis: 57 patients in each arm.