Furthermore, although MPL formulated 78 kDa antigen of L. donovani was efficacious in liver against challenged with L. donovani infection , partial protection was observed with Leishmania antigen in association with MPL-Dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) in spleen , an organ where parasites persist and are more resistant to various immunological interventions and even T cell-dependent chemotherapy. Serological data show that mice vaccinated with MPL-TDM+LAg
and liposomal LAg induced strong humoral responses after immunization AZD3965 nmr that persisted after challenge infection. Conversely and in accordance to previous reports [33, 34], mice vaccinated with BCG-LAg failed to respond with the production of antibodies prior to infection. BCG is known to stimulate APCs through several TLRs as well as to activate and recruit NK cells and neutrophil granulocytes. However, it could not act as a depot for coadministered antigens
for generation of antibody response . Successful vaccination for the control of parasite multiplication is often related to antigen induced DTH response as an indication of activation of cell-mediated response. In the present study, results obtained upon vaccination with LAg in association with BCG, MPL-TDM and liposomes demonstrated induction of an appreciable DTH response suggesting the activation of cell-mediated immunity. The induction of DTH was, however, check details highest in mice immunized Phosphoprotein phosphatase with liposomal LAg with lower and comparable levels induced by BCG+LAg and MPL-TDM + LAg. In clinical trials injection of BCG mixed with killed parasites significantly increased cell-mediated immune responses to the vaccine was measured by leishmanin skin test (LST). The LST conversion due to vaccination corresponded with reduced incidence of infection at least in the subpopulation of “”responders”" to vaccination . Animals successfully vaccinated with BCG and leishmanial antigens similarly elicited DTH reactions [33, 34]. Significant elevation of DTH response in mice immunized with protein antigens and MPL-DDA that provided resistance against VL has also been reported
. The significantly higher DTH response induced by liposomal LAg over BCG+LAg and MPL-TDM+LAg before and after challenge infection demonstrates elicitation of strong and persistent cell-mediated immunity by this vaccine, which https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BafilomycinA1.html resulted in greater resistance against disease. An important leishmanicidal effector mechanism is the production of IFN-γ by Leishmania-specific cells, which in turn activates macrophages to kill intracellular parasites. Immunization of BALB/c mice with BCG, MPL-TDM and liposomal LAg resulted in high IFN-γ production following in vitro restimulation. The levels of IFN-γ, however, varied in the three vaccination groups. Moderate levels of IFN-γ were produced by liposomal vaccine followed by BCG+LAg vaccine.