g the positively selected genes Nielsen et al have also reporte

g the positively selected genes. Nielsen et al. have also reported that apoptosis related genes were under strong positive selection among 13,731 homolo gous genes between www.selleckchem.com/products/Perifosine.html human and chimpanzee lineages. Apoptosis involves removal Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of cells damaged by stres ses or pathogen infections through programmed cell death. Several studies in plants have shown that disease resistance genes are under strong positive selection. The role of apoptosis in defence mechanisms may be the reason for positive selection acting on genes relating apoptosis and cell death. Genes relating to stress par ticularly disease stress evolve rapidly to adapt to chan ging conditions. Maintaining different alleles will help the organisms to cope with the changing conditions. The estimates of Ka Ks ratios in the present study are influenced by coverage of the genes.

The results Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pre sented here should therefore need to be further vali dated. Further studies using entire genome sequences of several closely related Eucalyptus Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries species should improve the knowledge of selection patterns among different genes. With the availability of Eucalyptus reference gen ome sequence and the development of improved se quence analysis tools such genome wide comparisons are now possible. Conclusions We identified numerous genes that are differentially expressed between control and water stressed E. camal dulensis seedlings. In addition to the previously charac terised genes we observed several novel and or unknown genes showing differential expression. Functional analysis of these genes may provide novel insights into the genetic control of drought tolerance.

We also identified several SNPs in the differentially expressed genes with allelic ex pression of several of these variants correlating with total gene expression. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The correlation of allelic expression with total gene expression indicates that these variants may be the cis acting regulatory variants or in LD with such var iants. Analysis of the selection patterns revealed enrich ment of apoptosis and cell death categories Cilengitide among the positively selected genes. The variants identified from dif ferential allelic expression form a valuable resource for further studies such as association studies to identify mar kers for drought resistance. Through this study we show that RNA seq can be used to reveal functional markers and evolutionary selection patterns in addition to candi date genes.

Methods Glass house experiments Eucalyptus camaldulensis seeds were sourced from three provenances with contrasting climates, Petford, Katherine and Mt. Isa. Fifteen genotypes from each provenance were grown in pots in a glass house in April 2009. Temperatures in the glasshouse were main tained at 15 C minimum and 30 C maximum. The soil surface in the http://www.selleckchem.com/products/dorsomorphin-2hcl.html pots was covered with plastic beads to re duce evaporation. After growing the plants for five months water stress was imposed on ten genotypes by maintaining the pots at 30% of field capacity for two months. The other five g

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