However, eosinophils were not able to ingest non-opsonized yeasts (eosinophils plus opsonized C. neoformans versus eosinophils plus non-opsonized C. neoformans, P < 0·05). C. neoformans phagocytosis was blocked by anti-FcγRII and anti-CD18 mAbs (Fig. 1b), suggesting that both receptors are involved in this phenomenon. Flow cytometric analysis of MHC class II surface expression demonstrated that the ingestion of opsonized yeasts
stimulated the increase of both the percentage and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of MHC class II on eosinophils (Fig. 2a) (eosinophil plus opsonized C. neoformans versus eosinophil plus non-opsonized C. neoformans; P < 0·02). According to the observations for C. neoformans Alvelestat molecular weight phagocytosis, MHC class II expression by eosinophils incubated with opsonized yeasts
was completely inhibited by FcγRII and CD18 (Fig. 2b). Furthermore, the increased expression of MHC class II on eosinophils treated with opsonized C. neoformans was significantly higher in cultures with GM-CSF than in its absence (60% versus 20%; P < 0·02) (Fig. 2b). We further analyzed c-Met inhibitor the expression of MHC class I, CD80 and CD86 on the surface of eosinophils incubated with opsonized or non-opsonized C. neoformans, in the presence or absence of GM-CSF. Figure 3a demonstrates that in the presence of GM-CSF, opsonized C. neoformans drastically increased the percentage and MFI of MHC class I expression on eosinophils (eosinophil plus opsonized C. neoformans versus eosinophil plus non-opsonized C. neoformans; P < 0·01). Moreover, opsonized C. neoformans significantly up-regulated the surface expression of CD80 and CD86 on these cells (eosinophil plus opsonized C. neoformans versus eosinophil plus non-opsonized C. neoformans; P < 0·05). Similar results were observed in cultures performed in the absence of GM-CSF (Fig. 3b). Therefore, in contrast to that observed for MHC class II, opsonized
C. neoformans up-regulated the expression of MHC class I and costimulatory molecules, regardless of the presence of GM-CSF Osimertinib in the medium. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12p40 were also quantified in the supernatants of eosinophils obtained 24 hr after culture with opsonized or non-opsonized C. neoformans in the presence or absence of GM-CSF. Figure 4 shows the production of cytokines in cultures containing GM-CSF, revealing that in the presence of opsonized C. neoformans, eosinophils secreted significant amounts of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12p40, compared to cells incubated in medium alone or with non-opsonized yeasts (P < 0·03). In contrast, Th2 cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) were not detected in these culture supernatants. Almost the same results were obtained in the absence of GM-CSF (data not shown). In order to evaluate the production of fungicidal molecules by GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophils incubated with opsonized C.