Indeed, conservative estimates of the
annual incidence of glaucoma in other African countries have been higher at approximately 400 cases per 1 million of the population.11 This suggests technical support the true annual incidence of glaucoma could be double what is being diagnosed by the glaucoma services in Botswana. Conclusions from this study must be interpreted cautiously. Glaucoma is a challenge to the eye services in the country, as some patients have poor access to services, limited awareness and understanding of the disease, and limited treatment options from the resources available. Further research into the incidence and prevalence of glaucoma in Botswana is required, as well as the need to establish effective treatments in eye health service. Supplementary Material Author’s manuscript: Click here to view.(1.6M, pdf) Reviewer comments: Click here to view.(172K, pdf) Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Addenbrooke’s Abroad, Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust, for facilitating this study and providing support. Footnotes Contributors: All authors contributed to the design and implementation of the study; and drafted and provided approval of the final manuscript. DJJ, MSR, RF, MMo, MMu, EJ and CB were responsible for data collection. Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interests:
None. Ethics approval: Institutional Review Board approval and ethical clearance were obtained from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Botswana and the relevant health facilities. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Air pollution has been linked to the development and exacerbation of a number of health problems. This link seems especially clear for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, asthma, influenza and lung cancer.1–4 It is well established that the ambient levels of air pollution in a region can have an impact
on the health status of the population which inhabits it.5 Air pollution levels should therefore be taken into account when considering the wider determinants of public Cilengitide health and the impact that changes in air pollution might have on the health of a population. Warwickshire is an English county within the UK approximately 112 km North-West of London. The issue of air pollution has been highlighted in Warwickshire recently by the setting up of Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) in a number of different parts of the county. These are specific areas in the county that have been identified as places where, without a focused local council strategy to reduce air pollution, future government targets for air pollutant concentrations may not be met.