OS differs by somatic

OS differs by somatic mutation status regardless of treatment

received: BRAF mutant, 8.8 months; KRAS mutant, 14.4 months and KRAS WT, 20.1 months (40). BRAF V600E mutation indicated poor prognosis in patients with KRAS WT disease in FOLFIRI alone and FOLFIRI/CTX groups; those with BRAF http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html mutations had worse outcomes. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 6% of tumor samples. In nearly all cases, these mutations were identified in KRAS WT tumors and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical impact of BRAF mutation in relation to efficacy of anti-EGFR was examined in the CRYSTAL trial population. The presence of BRAF mutation was a poor predictor of response and survival. Whether this biomarker is a negative predictor in relation to CTX is difficult to determine since this trial had a relatively small number of patients with BRAF mutations (6). In other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical trials, tumor with BRAF mutation was a negative prognostic marker for OS in patients with mCRC (41,42). In the NORDIC VII population, patients with mutated BRAF had low RR and markedly shorter PFS and OS compared to WT

mutations (43). In a retrospectively analyzed study for endpoints of RR, time to progression, OS, and the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF, 113 tumors from CTX or PAM-treated mCRC patients were analyzed. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 14% of patients who had KRAS WT disease. None of the BRAF-mutated patients responded to anti-EGFR treatment and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical had significantly shorter PFS and OS compared to BRAF WT. The role of BRAF mutations in patients treated with EGFR-targeted drugs is similar to that of mutated KRAS

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (44). Furthermore, 50% of BRAF mutations are more frequently detected in microsatellite instability (MSI-high) CRC compared with microsatellite-stable 12% (45-47). Even with BRAF inhibition by vemurafenib, limited response has been defined. It is proposed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that with this inhibition, more activation of the EGFR will result unlike melanoma cells which express low levels of EGFR on the cell surface (48-52). A Dasatinib cell-based analysis of a trial adding sorafenib to an anti-EGFR agent showed that even BRAF-mutated CRC cells can potentially respond to EGFR-targeted therapy if the BRAF inhibitor, sorafenib, is administered concomitantly with CTX or PAM even when either drug alone has limited activity. These data indicate that in BRAF-mutated tumors, the therapeutic effect of CTX or PAM could be restored by an approach aimed at blocking Anacetrapib the EGFR pathway at multiple locations. In addition to sorafenib, other compounds targeting either BRAF (PLX4032) or its downstream effectors (ARRY-162, AZD6244, and PD0325901) are in clinical development and could be exploited in combination with EGFR-targeted moAb therapy (53,54). Despite KRAS and BRAF WT status, there have still been a significant percentage of non-responders (41%) to anti-EGFR therapy questioning further pathways that are important in defining resistance to these treatments (44).

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