The majority of clones in sections 1 and 3 of the phylogenetic tr

The majority of clones in sections 1 and 3 of the phylogenetic tree are likely to be specific to the concentrate diet as are those clones in sections 4–7 to the hay diet. The trend toward a closer phylogenetic relationship of clones retrieved from the specific dietary conditions implies the presence of diet-specific phylotypes of Prevotella. However, more direct evidence is needed in order to link the proposed diet-specific Prevotella lineages to their role in the ruminal fermentation of feed. Our DGGE data further showed a consistently higher number of bands in

samples from hay-fed animals. This finding corresponded with diversity analysis from clone libraries that showed higher diversity values (Chao1 and Shannon index) and a greater number of OTUs for clones generated from the hay diet. These results suggest the possible involvement of more MAPK inhibitor diverse

members of Prevotella in the degradation of a hay diet than that of concentrate. selleck chemical In conclusion, Prevotella is a major member of the rumen bacterial community, and uncultured Prevotella constitute a large proportion of ruminal Prevotella. The diet-specific association of Prevotella clones observed suggests significant functional diversity of members of this genus in the rumen. This study provides evidence for the potential involvement of diverse groups of Prevotella in the degradation of feed in the rumen, particularly hay. “
“A group of bacterial strains formerly known as CDC group M-5 are opportunistic pathogens to humans. In 1993, a name, Neisseria weaveri, was proposed by two independent studies to harbor CDC group M-5 strains, namely N. weaveri Holmes et al. 1993 and N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993, with two different ‘type’ strains. However, no study has been conducted on to the relatedness of the two ‘type’ strains,

although the close relationship of the two taxa has long been accepted unofficially. selleck Formally, the status of the name N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of N. weaveri Holmes et al., 1993; but the name of the strain is still validly published. In this study, we attempt to resolve the confusion caused by the apparent duplication of the species N. weaveri (with different type strains) using whole genome shotgun sequencing. We also sought to gain insight into the genetic characteristics of N. weaveri by conducting comparative genomics. On the basis of genomic similarities revealed through a comparative genomic study, we propose that N. weaveri Andersen et al. 1993 should be re-classified as a later heterotypic synonym of N. weaveri Holmes et al., 1993. The genus Neisseria is composed of commensal bacteria that colonize the mucus membranes of mammals. Neisseria encompasses two important pathogens – Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae – as well as many other opportunistic pathogens (Janda & Knapp, 2003; Han et al., 2006).

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