The MET oncogene is overexpressed and/or genetically mutated in m

The MET oncogene is overexpressed and/or genetically mutated in many tumors, thereby sustaining pathological invasive growth, a prerequisite for metastasis. The interplay between MET and the protease network provides potentially exploitable mechanisms which coulod inhibit growth. The signaling pathways linking MET activation and invasive growth appear partly shared with other growth factor receptors, i.e. MAP Kinase, PI-3 Kinase-AKT Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical STAT3, p38, and NF-kB pathways. c-MET amplification is high in gastric cancer but virtually non existent in colorectal cancer.

We know from the Dutch study that the presence of PI3K mutations is prognostic for local recurrence but c-MET over expression may be better looking at distant metatases. In addition, in colorectal cancer in particular there is the targeting of cycloxygenase 2 (Cox 2). Conclusions Currently, targeted agents which impact on angiogenesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and growth factors, (bevacizumab, aflibercept, cetuximab and panitumumab), when combined with conventional cytotoxic drugs, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and their receptors, modestly

increase response rates in metastatic disease, enhance resectability of liver metastases, and improve DFS. There is an associated G3/G4 toxicity even when used as single agents, and the long-term effects are unknown. Yet, insufficient understanding of the precise mechanisms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from which their clinical efficacy derives, their buy RepSox innate and acquired resistance mechanisms, and the on-target and off-target effects on both tumour and normal tissues hamper further development/combining these agents with radiation or chemoradiation. To date, we lack a simple method of ongoing monitoring of ‘on target’ effects of these biological agents, which could determine and pre-empt the development of resistance, prior to radiological

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and clinical assessessments or even molecular imaging. It is clearly feasible to combine cytotoxic drugs, targetted agents and radiation in rectal cancer. However, integration into chemoradiation schedules rationally, in the correct sequence, at the most appropriate Idoxuridine time and in the most appropriate combinations remains difficult. Despite some evidence of preclinical activity, many trials have not confirmed additional activity in early clinical trials. There is little evidence that we have increased pCR in any of the larger clinical studies. This may not even be relevant—as increasing pCR rates did not improve DFS or OS in the trials comparing radiation with 5-FU based chemoradiation (25,26,166). Phase III trials have also been disappointing (44). The reason has been postulated in terms of radiation sensitization. Cetuximab and cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin probably have similar mechanisms of action, predominantly via inhibition of proliferation and DNA repair.

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