The presence of a high titre of circulating anti-glomerular basem

The presence of a high titre of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies at the time of transplantation increases the risk of recurrence in the allograft in Goodpasture syndrome.[14] In contrast, clinical recurrence is

extremely rare if the antibody is undetectable over the 6 months prior to transplantation.[14] The prevalence of recurrent lupus nephritis is very low.[15, 16] The vast majority of recipients with ESRD due to lupus nephritis has lost serological activity of systemic lupus erythematosus, this website and seems to be in a burn-out state. As a result, the recurrence rate of lupus nephritis is extremely low. Recent studies indicate the possibility of early recognition of recurrence in several glomerular diseases. The existence of circulating permeability factors proposed by Savin’s group may be a notable predictor of recurrence of FSGS.[17, 18] Circulating urokinase receptor, which has been reported as a cause of FSGS, may also be a promising predictor of FSGS recurrence.[19]

To date, there is no reproducible study showing that these interesting factors play pivotal Selleckchem LY294002 roles in the pathogenesis of recurrent FSGS. Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody is detectable in approximately 60% of patients with primary membranous glomerulonephritis.[20, 21] Detection of anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody in the recipient may be a sensitive predictor of recurrence of membranous nephropathy. Disorders of complement regulatory proteins like factors I mutation, factor H mutation, C3 nephritic factors and others play pivotal roles in the development of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)[22, 23] and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type-II as basement membrane dense deposit disease (DDD). The

development of an analysis Clomifene system for complement regulatory factors and related proteins or related gene abnormalities will contribute greatly to predicting the recurrence of these diseases. The development of therapeutic approaches to regulate these factors may prevent many recurrent glomerulopathies in the near future. A humanized monoclonal antibody against terminal complement component C5b-9, the terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab, is a very potent preventative agent for the recurrence of atypical HUS.[24] New information on disorders of complement regulatory proteins (factors), like factor I mutation and factor H mutation, could deliver a useful predictor for preventing recurrent nephritis. A highly sensitive detection method for free light chains and kappa/lambda ratio is beneficial in early diagnosis of the recurrent light chain deposition disease and/or AL-amyloidosis. Protocol biopsy is widely accepted in Japan.

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