The question what is the nature of the NKG2D-L involved was not a

The question what is the nature of the NKG2D-L involved was not addressed

in our study and has to be elucidated in future work. The data may be explained in the light of the two-step process of NK-cell activation. This model postulates that activation of resting NK cells requires engagement of at least two receptors that convey a priming and a triggering event 26. IL-2 and NCR have been defined as priming and triggering molecules, respectively 26. Tumors may evade lysis through the lack of either efficient priming (type 1) or triggering (type 2). In our model, NK-cell activation correlated with MHC class I reduction of early-stage λ-myc lymphomas but not with their NKG2D-L levels (Fig. 3C, D), and in vitro lysis as well as tumor rejection not only required an activated NK-cell phenotype but were additionally dependent on NKG2D-L (Table 1, Fig. 4B). Since up-regulation of activation markers was mediated by MHC class Ilow target this website cells, by IL-15 or by DC, but not by NKG2D-L in the absence of the former stimuli, we suggest that NKG2D-L only act as a triggering signal, whereas MHC class Ilow cells provide a priming signal for NK cells. This was also suggested by our previous studies where we showed that in normal mice, transplanted MHC class I-positive lymphomas are effectively controlled provided (i) NK cells

are previously activated in vivo by injecting DC or CpG-ODN and (ii) sufficient amounts of NKG2D-L are expressed by the tumor 22. Transplanted MHC class Ilow lymphomas with sufficient NKG2D-L levels

are rejected even without preceding NK-cell activation 6. Whereas the priming signal provides unspecific activation, the tumor specificity of the NK-cell response may be mediated by the second signal. Taken together, apart from IL-2, other effectors that provide priming signals may include MHClow cells, DC, CpG-ODN or IL-15. Of course, it cannot be precluded that in λ-myc mice, other mechanisms may also act as priming signals and may be instrumental in inducing the activated phenotype of NK cells, for example microenvironment-derived cytokines. It is also possible that a higher fraction of immature NK cells is recruited to the tumor sites. The requirement of NKG2D-L Fludarabine ic50 for NK-cell triggering and tumor rejection also argues for its role in immune evasion. A synergism between “missing self” and NKG2D-mediated signals was also suggested by a previous in vitro study, but its implications for tumor surveillance in vivo and its significance in the context of the sequential NK-cell activation model were not addressed in this report 25. In transplantation models, injection of tumor cells with NK cell-activating potential gave rise to NK-cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ expression and, eventually, to CTL responses 6, 43.

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