The significance of the variables was tested with a Monte Carlo mTOR inhibitor simulation, run with 499 iterations. The software used was CANOCO 4.5 (Braak and Smilauer 1998). How much individual species were associated with a site ‘type’ was
tested with indicator species analysis (IndVal) (Dufrene and Legendre 1997). This analysis gives a value of 100 for a perfect indicator which means a species that occur on all sites with in a category (type) and not on any other site. Bad indicators get a value near 0. With 15,999 permutations in a Monte Carlo test the statistical significance of the indicator Alvespimycin concentration values were calculated under the null hypothesis that the indicator value is not larger than would be expected by chance. Species present on four or more sites (n = 164) were analysed. PcOrd 6.0 was used for the calculations. Results In total 14,460 individuals of 323 saproxylic beetle species were found (Table 2). Of these, 56 were classified as living in hollows, and 259 as living in wood and bark. The eight remaining species live in sap-runs, but this category had too few species to allow further statistical analyses. Of all saproxylic species, 50 were red-listed (Table 2). Table 2 The total material of saproxylic beetles collected in the study Variable, species category All saproxylic Hollows Wood and bark
Sap-runs click here No. of individuals, all species 14,460 5,352 8,862 246 No. of species, all species 323 56 259 8 No. of individuals, red-listed species 1,429 331 1,098 0 No. of species, red-listed species 50 17 33 0 Number of
species ‘Open’ sites had the highest average number of species per site for all combinations of red-listed and non-red-listed species and substrate associations (Fig. 3). However, it was significantly higher than another category ‘Park’ only when “all saproxylic species” and “all wood and bark species” were compared (Fig. 3a, c; Table 3). Regarding species associated with hollows and red-listed species, the number of species in ‘Park’ was intermediate between ‘Open’ and ‘Re-grown’ sites, although these differences were not statistically significant (Fig. 3b, d–f; Table 3). Fig. 3 The average number of beetle species in the three stand types under comparison: a all saproxylic species, b species living in Inositol monophosphatase 1 hollows, c species living in wood and bark, d all red-listed saproxylic species, e red-listed species in hollows, f red-listed species in wood and bark. Significant differences were found in (a) and (c) (see Table 3). Number of sites were: ‘Open’ n = 8, ‘Re-grown’ n = 11, ‘Park’ n = 8 Table 3 P values for each variable as tested in the final multiple regression models with the number of species per site as the dependent variable. The direction of the significant relationships are shown as (−) or (+) or for the variable ‘type’ in Fig. 3 All saproxylic species Variable All species Hollows Wood and bark Type 0.023 0.18 0.014 RT90N 0.008 (−) 0.