These products are deleterious for host health Selisistat research buy . Figure 5 presents the cumulative total production of BCFA. BCFA are produced in small amounts for every test variation compared to the SCFA (about 20 to 40 fold lower). Total BCFA production was highest when probiotic was administered after clindamycin. However, when Clindamycin and probiotics were administered at the same time, the BCFA production was decreased. In the experiments in which Clindamycin was administered (the first 7 days), the BCFA production was comparable to the control. Therefore the decreasing effect probably was induced by the use of
probiotics. When probiotics were administered after a week treatment with Clindamycin, this decreasing effect in BCFA production was not observed. Figure 5 Cumulative production for the branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) iso-butyrate and DMXAA datasheet iso-valerate during the different experiments in TIM-2: (A) Clindamycin for 7 days (d 1-7 a) followed by VSL#3 (d 8-14 p); (B) Clindamycin + VSL#3 for 7 days (d 1-7 a + p); (C) no therapy group for 7 days (controls). Figure 5D shows the comparison of absolute amounts (in mmol) at the end of
each 7 days period. Figure 6 shows the cumulative total production of ammonia. For ammonia the production was decreased between day 3 and 7 in the test experiments compared to the control. In the experiments learn more in which Clindamycin was administered, as well as in which Clindamycin was administered together with probiotics, the ammonia production was reduced just as observed for the BCFA. Figure 6 Cumulative Thalidomide production for ammonia during the different experiments in TIM-2 (A) (Clindamycin for 7 days (d 1-7 a) followed by VSL#3 (d 8-14 p); Clindamycin + VSL#3 for 7 days (d 1-7 a + p); no therapy group for 7 days (controls). Figure 6B shows the comparison of absolute amounts (in mmol) at the end of each 7 days period. Composition of the microbiota To determine the effects of Clindamycin and the probiotics on the composition of the microbiota, the I-chip platform was used. The
I-chip contained roughly 400 probes, some for group-level detection (e.g Bifidobacterium genus) and some for the detection of individual species (e.g. Bifidobacterium longum). Some groups and species were covered by more than one probe. In all cases the hybridization to these multiple probes correlated very well. However, not al probes gave a signal above background noise, which was expected, as not all microorganisms are present above the level of detection of the method (approximately 107 CFU/g). Due to the different nature of each probe (different sequence), hybridization intensity does not necessarily reflect abundance. Difference in GC-content results in different hybridization efficiencies.